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Recent European studies suggest that fathers’ leave-taking may contribute to parental relationship stability. Paternity leave-taking may signal a commitment by fathers toward a greater investment in family life, which may reduce the burden on mothers and strengthen parental relationships. This study uses longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) to analyze the association between paternity leave-taking and relationship stability in the United States. Results indicate that paternity leave-taking, and taking relatively short leaves (i.e. two weeks or less) in particular, is associated with greater relationship stability. These findings increase our understanding of the potential benefits of paternity leave, and can inform policy decisions that aim to increase family stability.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Background: Delirium is a well described form of acute brain organ dysfunction characterized by decreased or increased movement, changes in attention and concentration as well as perceptual disturbances (i.e., hallucinations) and delusions. Catatonia, a neuropsychiatric syndrome traditionally described in patients with severe psychiatric illness, can present as phenotypically similar to delirium and is characterized by increased, decreased and/or abnormal movements, staring, rigidity, and mutism. Delirium and catatonia can co-occur in the setting of medical illness, but no studies have explored this relationship by age. Our objective was to assess whether advancing age and the presence of catatonia are associated with delirium. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Methods: We prospectively enrolled critically ill patients at a single institution who were on a ventilator or in shock and evaluated them daily for delirium using the Confusion Assessment for the ICU and for catatonia using the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. Measures of association (OR) were assessed with a simple logistic regression model with catatonia as the independent variable and delirium as the dependent variable. Effect measure modification by age was assessed using a Likelihood ratio test. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results: We enrolled 136 medical and surgical critically ill patients with 452 matched (concomitant) delirium and catatonia assessments. Median age was 59 years (IQR: 52–68). In our cohort of 136 patients, 58 patients (43%) had delirium only, 4 (3%) had catatonia only, 42 (31%) had both delirium and catatonia, and 32 (24%) had neither. Age was significantly associated with prevalent delirium (i.e., increasing age associated with decreased risk for delirium) (p=0.04) after adjusting for catatonia severity. Catatonia was significantly associated with prevalent delirium (p<0.0001) after adjusting for age. Peak delirium risk was for patients aged 55 years with 3 or more catatonic signs, who had 53.4 times the odds of delirium (95% CI: 16.06, 176.75) than those with no catatonic signs. Patients 70 years and older with 3 or more catatonia features had half this risk. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Conclusions: Catatonia is significantly associated with prevalent delirium even after controlling for age. These data support an inverted U-shape risk of delirium after adjusting for catatonia. This relationship and its clinical ramifications need to be examined in a larger sample, including patients with dementia. Additionally, we need to assess which acute brain syndrome (delirium or catatonia) develops first.
The paper considers the possibilities of a single type of VTOL vehicle—the compound rotorcraft—in the context of 1968 technology. Past and current compound programmes are reviewed in establishing technical status and include the XV-1, Fairey Rotodyne, Kamov KA-22, US Army Aviation Material Laboratories experimental compounds and the AH-56A (AAFSS).
Qualitative characteristics of compound rotorcraft such as airframe vibration, gust response, landing and take-off characteristics, and safety are discussed and compared with both fixed- and pure rotary-wing aircraft.
Characteristics such as cruise speed, vehicle lift/drag ratio, empty weight fraction, and maintenance are examined quantitatively for a 30-passenger compound rotorcraft, and appropriate limitations of these characteristics are discussed. Sensitivity of direct operating costs to changes in these characteristics is considered.
The compound method of VTOL flight appears to offer great promise in both military and commercial fields, particularly as it can be applied to the inter-urban mass transport problem and to Army logistics and ground attack functions.
Medical education often presents new material as large data dumps at a single live event (lecture or symposium), in part because it is traditional, and also because this structure can be perceived as the most time efficient for busy clinicians and their teachers. However, modern learning theory and new insights from the neurobiological basis of long-term memory formation show that the format of single-event presentation of materials is not very effective. Rather, seeing the presentation of new materials over time, in bite-sized chunks, and then seeing them again at a later time, particularly as a test, leads to more retention of information than does learning the same amount of material as a large bolus in a single setting. This notion of learning over time, also called “interval learning” or “spaced learning,” is particularly well adapted to the Internet era. Here we describe an application of this concept to the learning of psychopharmacology over time in bite-sized and repeated portions structured as an “online fellowship” called the Master Psychopharmacology Program (www.neiglobal.com/mpptour).
The ability to engage in self-reflective processes is a capacity that may be disrupted after neurological compromise; research to date has demonstrated that patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) show reduced awareness of their deficits and functional ability compared to caretaker or clinician reports. Assessment of awareness of deficit, however, has been limited by the use of subjective measures (without comparison to actual performance) that are susceptible to report bias. This study used concurrent measurements from cognitive testing and confidence judgments about performance to investigate in-the-moment metacognitive experiences after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Deficits in metacognitive accuracy were found in adults with TBI for some but not all indices, suggesting that metacognition may not be a unitary construct. Findings also revealed that not all indices of executive functioning reliably predict metacognitive ability. (JINS, 2011, 17, 720–731)
The target article addresses important empirical issues, but adopts a nonanalytic stance toward consciousness and presents the mentalistic view as a very radical position that rules out informational description of anything other than conscious mental states. A better mentalistic strategy is to show how the structure of some informational states is both constitutive of consciousness and necessary for psychological functions.
Cavitation was examined in an Al–Mg solid-solution alloy deformed in tension at 400 °C under conditions providing solute-drag creep, which can produce tensile ductilities from 100% to over 300%. Two nondestructive evaluation techniques were employed to measure the extent of cavitation: ultra-high-resolution x-ray computed tomography and pulse-echo ultrasonic evaluation. Subsequent to nondestructive evaluation, the sample was sectioned for examination by standard metallographic techniques. Metallographic examination confirmed that both nondestructive techniques accurately indicated the extent of cavitation. Ultrasonic testing provided a practical means of distinguishing material with cavities from that without cavities. Ultrahigh- resolution x-ray computed tomography provided an accurate three-dimensional image of internal cavitation.
Dienes & Perner's target article constitutes
a significant advance in thinking about implicit knowledge.
However, it largely neglects processing details and thus the
time scale of mental states realizing propositional attitudes.
Considering real-time processing raises questions about the
possible brevity of implicit representation, the nature of
processes that generate explicit knowledge, and the points
of view from which knowledge may be represented. Understanding
the propositional attitude analysis in terms of momentary mental
states points the way toward answering these questions.
The target article offers an intriguing hypothesis relating
the content of phenomenal experience to a qualitative characteristic
of information processing. This hypothesis, however, offers only an
explanation of the “what” of consciousness, not the
“who” – the experiencing agent remains mysterious.
Their hypothesis about the unity of consciousness can be linked to an
informational account of the agency or subjectivity of
Glenberg's rethinking of memory theory seems limited
in its ability to handle abstract symbolic thought, the selective
character of cognition, and the self. Glenberg's framework can
be elaborated by linking it with theoretical efforts concerned with
cognitive development (Piaget) and ecological perception (Gibson).
These elaborations point to the role of memory in specifying the self
as an active agent.
Pollen analyses form the data base for many types of inferences ranging from sequential changes in past environments to lifestyles and diets of prehistoric human populations. In all cases, interpretation of pollen data must account for those factors that may have influenced the composition of the original pollen rain, and also for those factors that may have altered the composition of the pollen assemblage following deposition.
During the last 50 years palynologists have learned that there are many complex factors that determine the original composition of the pollen rain in an arid region. These include mode of pollination, differences in pollen production, differential dispersion patterns, and the size, weight, and aerodynamic ability of pollen types to remain airborne (see Chaps. 3, 13, 14, and other related chapters in this volume). Following deposition, other factors influence eventual loss or recovery of specific pollen types. These factors include pollen redeposition, the chemical composition of a pollen grain's exine, its morphological shape and types of surface ornamentation, and its susceptibility to various types of degradation processes including those from mechanical, chemical, or biological agents (Bryant, 1978, 1988; Bryant & Holloway, 1983; Hollo way, 1989; O'Rourke, 1990). In this chapter we focus on the post depositional degradation processes.
One of the first agents that can affect pollen grains is mechanical degradation. After pollen is released from its source, it can become abraded or broken during the transportation phase. These alterations can result from impact or from changes in the natural environment.