Direct-write electron beam lithography is a patterning technique that has rapidly evolved over the last 40 years. For many years it has been possible to use electrons to pattern lines with widths as narrow as 10 rum. Recent advances in resist materials, electron sources, and system integration have further enhanced the capabilities. High-sensitivity resists provide substantial increases in the throughput without sacrificing resolution. Thermal field-emission sources improve the stability and reduce the minimum attainable spot size. Modem lithography systems integrate the electron beam column with advanced control electronics, making a system capable of nanometer-scale placement accuracy. In addition to these improvements, the technology is more accessible now than ever before, thanks to the proliferation of lithography systems consisting of modified scanning electron microscopes.