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Electroconvulsive therapy is widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Historically, in contrast to affective disorders, there has been relatively limited high-quality evidence to support its use for this indication. Consequently, the last edition of The ECT Handbook (Waite & Easton, 2013) sanctioned its use only as a short-term intervention, in clozapine-resistant illness. Since that time, there has been renewed interest in the topic amongst researchers and several recent publications have helped guide this updated chapter.
In the previous edition of The ECT Handbook (Waite & Easton, 2013), treatment of catatonia was covered in the chapter on schizophrenia. This was partly in keeping with the diagnostic classifications at the time (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2000; World Health Organisation, 1992), which listed the syndrome as a subtype of schizophrenia. Current classification confirms that the treatment of catatonia, a syndrome of multiple aetiologies, should be considered in its own right.
This article is based on our experience of volunteering for the charity Festival Medical Services, to provide mental healthcare at the Glastonbury Festival of Contemporary Performing Arts and the Reading Festival. It describes the history of these annual events and the development of medical and psychiatric services offered. Principles of assessment and management of mental disorder in festival settings are outlined and common psychiatric presentations are described. Legal aspects of care are discussed. The article is intended primarily to inform others of this interesting and unusual form of mental healthcare and we hope that aspects of our experience will prompt reflection on psychiatric practice in other settings.
•Understand how psychiatric care is provided at the Glastonbury and Reading Festivals
•Recognise the symptoms and signs of organic and functional conditions likely to present to psychiatrists at festivals
•Identify the principles of psychiatric management in festival settings
DECLARATION OF INTEREST
I.R. and R.B. gain free entry to the Glastonbury and Reading Festivals through their voluntary work with Festival Medical Services.
A quantitative analysis of the effect of fire regime on the abundance of common lizard species and genera and the species richness of two lizard groups in Kakadu National Park (12° S) is presented. A surprising range of relationships between species abundance and components of fire regimes was revealed. Carlia amax, Heteronotia binoei and Carlia gracilis appear to be fire-sensitive, Diporiphora bilineata and Carlia triacantha are favoured by early hot fires, Cryptoblepharus plagiocephalus seems relatively unaffected, Carlia foliorum seems very tolerant of fires, while Ctenotus and Sphenomorphus spp. are favoured by low intensity, patchy fires with high intensity spots.
Lizard species experiencing the high-frequency fire regimes of the savannas and dry forests of the Australian wet-dry tropics are not able to select habitat at different stages of regeneration after fire but select habitat produced by fires of different types. The implication for management is that no one fire regime is optimal for the fauna as a whole. A range of fire regimes within a park should be maintained in order to retain the whole fauna.
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