To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Popular media has recently given attention to sexist workplace culture and low rates of female employees within large tech companies. Tech companies have released a plethora of diversity reports as part of a commitment to diversifying the workforce. Disability is largely absent from these companies’ PR and resulting media coverage. Diversity and inclusion efforts – whether it is diversity reports to increase transparency, flexible benefits, or feminist stances meant to welcome women – rarely include disability specifically. When TechCrunch asked seven major companies – Intel, Apple, Twitter, Facebook, Slack, Google, and Salesforce – about the omission of disability from these reports, their responses were not reassuring (O’Hear, 2016). Facebook, Salesforce, and Google failed to respond. Intel and Slack pointed to their inclusion efforts related to disability and indicated they could release data in the future. Apple and Twitter pointed the journalist to their accessible products as evidence that they consider disability in driving innovation. Subsequently, Slack’s 2017 diversity report highlighted that 1.7% of their employees identify as having a disability (Slack Team, 2017). In 2016 LinkedIn included disability in their diversity reporting, highlighting that 3% of their US employees have a disability (Wadors, 2016). Otherwise, there is little attention given to individuals with disabilities, and, more specifically, women with disabilities in computing.
Self-Practice/Self-Reflection (SP/SR) has been proposed both as an adjunct to therapy training programmes, and also as a means for therapist development among experienced therapists. Research suggests it develops aspects of knowledge and skill that may not be addressed through other training methods. With increasing interest in SP/SR, a growing evidence base regarding both participant benefits and potential risks from SP/SR, and the development of SP/SR programmes across a range of therapeutic modalities, we argue it is timely to identify a set of principles that can guide the design, adaptation and implementation of SP/SR programmes. At this stage, there is little empirical evidence to guide trainers wishing to implement SP/SR in different contexts. Accordingly, these principles have been derived from reflection on developing, testing and implementing SP/SR programmes as well as on other training and supervisory experience. The first set of principles detailed in Section 1 draw on various theories of learning and development and frame the processes involved, the next principles speak to the content of SP/SR programmes, and the final principles address structure. Within Section 2, the principles are then considered for their practical implications. In Section 3, the sharing of what are initially private self-reflections is then considered together with some implications for SP/SR programmes, especially when there is assessment involved. We argue that SP/SR will continue to progress with well-designed standard programmes, careful implementation, thoughtful adaptation, ongoing innovation, and especially more evaluation.
Key learning aims
(1)To understand the principles for designing, adapting and implementing SP/SR programmes that are drawn from theory and from the authors’ experience of developing and implementing SP/SR programmes over the last 20 years.
(2)To understand the possible factors that guide the processes, content and structure of SP/SR programmes.
(3)To understand how best to maximize effective engagement and learning (and limit harm) when planning or implementing an SP/SR programme.
A structure capable of substantially amplifying water waves over a broad range of frequencies at selected locations is proposed. The structure consists of a small number of C-shaped cylinders in a line array, with the cylinder properties graded along the array. Using linear potential-flow theory, it is shown that the energy carried by a plane incident wave is amplified within specified cylinders for wavelengths comparable to the array length and for a range of incident directions. Transfer-matrix analysis is used to attribute the large amplifications to excitation of local Rayleigh–Bloch waves and gradual slowing down of their group velocity along the array.
We describe the use of implementation science at the unit level and organizational level to guide an intervention to reduce central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in a high-volume, regional, burn intensive care unit (BICU).
A single center observational quasi-experimental study.
A regional BICU in Maryland serving 300–400 burn patients annually.
In 2011, an organizational-level and unit-level intervention was implemented to reduce the rates of CLABSI in a high-risk patient population in the BICU. At the organization level, leaders declared a goal of zero infections, created an infrastructure to support improvement efforts by creating a coordinating team, and engaged bedside staff. Performance data were transparently shared. At the unit level, the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP)/ Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) model was used. A series of interventions were implemented: development of new blood culture procurement criteria, implementation of chlorhexidine bathing and chlorhexidine dressings, use of alcohol impregnated caps, routine performance of root-cause analysis with executive engagement, and routine central venous catheter changes.
The use of an implementation science framework to guide multiple interventions resulted in the reduction of CLABSI rates from 15.5 per 1,000 central-line days to zero with a sustained rate of zero CLABSIs over 3 years (rate difference, 15.5; 95% confidence interval, 8.54–22.48).
CLABSIs in high-risk units may be preventable with the a use a structured organizational and unit-level paradigm.
This paper documents the glaciological structures associated with the surge of Skeiðarárjökull, Iceland, in 1991. These structures are interpreted as units of stratified ice, low-angle fractures, vertical and sub-vertical fractures (crevasse traces) and thrusts. The inferred thrusts are debris-rich and, unusually, have both down-glacier and up-glacier dips close to the ice margin. Sediment infills consist of either massive sand or horizontally stratified sand units. The most significant debris-rich structures on the glacier surface, however, are supraglacial crevasse and conduit fills, which contain either massive or horizontally stratified silts, sands and granule-gravels. These sediments infill both vertical fractures (relict crevasses) and englacial conduits. At the stratigraphic base of these sediment fills there is evidence of syn-sedimentary deformation, suggesting that sedimentation occurred during crevasse closure and continued thereafter. We argue that these structures relate to an episode of supraglacial meltwater flow during the 1991 surge, caused by the build-up of subglacial water pressure in a linked-cavity system or some similar distributed drainage system beneath the glacier. The development of this high-level drainage route may have helped regulate basal water pressures and therefore the active phase of the surge. The idea that the supraglacial leakage of subglacial water may have played a role in terminating the surge is explored.
We report on satellite and ground-based observations that link glacier motion with subglacial hydrology beneath Skeiðarárjökull, an outlet glacier of Vatnajökull, Iceland. We have developed a technique that uses interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data, from the European Remote-sensing Satellite (ERS-1/-2) tandem mission (1995–2000), to detect localized anomalies in vertical ice motion. Applying this technique we identify an area of the glacier where these anomalies are frequent: above the subglacial course of the river Skeiðará, where we observed uplift of 0.15–0.20 m d−1 during a rainstorm and a jökulhlaup, and subsidence at a slower rate subsequent to rainstorms. A similar pattern of motion is apparent from continuous GPS measurements obtained at this location in 2006/07. We argue that transient uplift of the ice surface is caused by water accumulating at the glacier base upstream of an adverse bed slope where the overburden pressure decreases significantly over a short distance. Most of the frictional energy of the flowing water is therefore needed to maintain water temperature at the pressure-melting point. Hence, little energy is available to enlarge water channels sufficiently by melting to accommodate sudden influxes of water to the base. This causes water pressure to exceed the overburden pressure, enabling uplift to occur.
There is a major demand for people with scientific training in a wide range of professions based on and maintaining relations with science. However, there is a lack of good first-hand information about alternative career paths to research. From entrepreneurship, industry and the media to government, public relations, activism and teaching, this is a readable guide to science based skills, lifestyles and career paths. The ever-narrowing pyramid of opportunities within an academic career structure, or the prospect of a life in the laboratory losing its attraction, mean that many who trained in science and engineering now look for alternative careers. Thirty role models who began by studying many different disciplines give personal guidance for graduates, postgraduates and early-career scientists in the life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. This book is an entertaining resource for ideas about, and directions into, the many fields which they may not be aware of or may not have considered.