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Communication deviance (CD) reflects features of the content or manner of a person's speech that may confuse the listener and inhibit the establishment of a shared focus of attention. The construct was developed in the context of the study of familial risks for psychosis based on hypotheses regarding its effects during childhood. It is not known whether parental CD is associated with nonverbal parental behaviors that may be important in early development. This study explored the association between CD in a cohort of mothers (n = 287) at 32 weeks gestation and maternal sensitivity with infants at 29 weeks in a standard play procedure. Maternal CD predicted lower overall maternal sensitivity (B = –.385; p < .001), and the effect was somewhat greater for sensitivity to infant distress (B = –.514; p < .001) than for sensitivity to nondistress (B = –.311; p < .01). After controlling for maternal age, IQ and depression, and for socioeconomic deprivation, the associations with overall sensitivity and sensitivity to distress remained significant. The findings provide new pointers to intergenerational transmission of vulnerability involving processes implicated in both verbal and nonverbal parental behaviors.
Certain parenting styles are influential in the emergence of later mental health problems, but less is known about the relationship between parenting style and later psychological well-being. Our aim was to examine the association between well-being in midlife and parental behaviour during childhood and adolescence, and the role of personality as a possible mediator of this relationship.
Data from 984 women in the 1946 British birth cohort study were analysed using structural equation modelling. Psychological well-being was assessed at age 52 years using Ryff's scales of psychological well-being. Parenting practices were recollected at age 43 years using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Extraversion and neuroticism were assessed at age 26 years using the Maudsley Personality Inventory.
In this sample, three parenting style factors were identified: care; non-engagement; control. Higher levels of parental care were associated with higher psychological well-being, while higher parental non-engagement or control were associated with lower levels of psychological well-being. The effects of care and non-engagement were largely mediated by the offspring's personality, whereas control had direct effects on psychological well-being. The psychological well-being of adult women was at least as strongly linked to the parenting style of their fathers as to that of their mothers, particularly in relation to the adverse effects of non-engagement and control.
This study used a prospective longitudinal design to examine the effects of parenting practices on psychological well-being in midlife. The effects of parenting, both positive and negative, persisted well into mid-adulthood.
There have been few detailed longitudinal symptom studies of bipolar
To describe the course of bipolar disorder over 18 months in 204 patients
receiving mental healthcare.
Patients were interviewed every 8 weeks, with weekly ratings of
depression, mania and overall severity.
Participants were symptomatic 53% of the time, with sub-syndromal
symptoms present for twice as long as major disorder, and depressive
symptoms three times more than manic symptoms. Individuals who were
experiencing an episode at baseline spent 33% of the 18 months with
substantial sub-syndromal symptoms, 17% with major disorder and 28%
symptom free. Those not experiencing a baseline episode spent twice as
long symptom free and half as long at disorder levels. Changes in symptom
level were frequent. Predictors of sub-syndromal symptoms were similar to
those of major disorder.
Sub-syndromal residual symptoms are an important problem in recurrent
bipolar disorder and require therapeutic intervention.
Efficacy trials suggest that structured psychological therapies may significantly reduce recurrence rates of major mood episodes in individuals with bipolar disorders.
To compare the effectiveness of treatment as usual with an additional 22 sessions of cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT).
We undertook a multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled treatment trial (n=253). Patients were assessed every 8 weeks for 18 months.
More than half of the patients had a recurrence by 18 months, with no significant differences between groups (hazard ratio=1.05; 95% CI 0.74–1.50). Post hoc analysis demonstrated a significant interaction (P=0.04) such that adjunctive CBT was significantly more effective than treatment as usual in those with fewer than 12 previous episodes, but less effective in those with more episodes.
People with bipolar disorder and comparatively fewer previous mood episodes may benefit from CBT. However, such cases form the minority of those receiving mental healthcare.
Twenty patients with a major depressive disorder and 20 control subjects were subjected to a 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and a challenge with intravenous (IV) methylphenidate (MP)(0·3 mg/kg). None of the controls, but 9 depressives, were DST non-suppressors. Among the depressives there were correlations between DST-cortisol and baseline (4 p.m.) levels of cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin and adrenaline. Compared with the controls the depressives had a decreased cortisol response and an enhanced adrenaline response to the MP challenge. The decreased cortisol response was not related to either DST-cortisol or baseline cortisol, but was correlated with the mood response to MP.
In this note we present a variable order continuation method for the solution of nonlinear equations when only a poor estimate of a solution is known. The method changes continuously from one which improves the global convergence characteristics to one which attains rapid convergence to a solution and proves to be more efficient than methods previously presented in .
The authors have noticed an oversight in Section 3.1 of this paper. To correct this error it is necessary to assume a uniform differentiability condition on G(x, h). This is required, for example, to imply δ on line 4 of p. 178 can be chosen independent of h. For brevity we note that this oversight has been corrected in , which is available from the authors. Also, the results of subsequent sections are unaffected.
Methods which make use of the differential equation ẋ(t) = −J(x)−1f(x), where J(x) is the Jacobian of f(x), have recently been proposed for solving the system of nonlinear equations f(x) = 0. These methods are important because of their improved convergence characteristics. Under general conditions the solution trajectory of the differential equation converges to a root of f and the problem becomes one of solving a differential equation. In this paper we note that the special form of the differential equation can be used to derive single and multistep methods which give improved rates of local convergence to a root.
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