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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Cognitive reserve, broadly conceived, encompasses aspects of brain structure and function that optimize individual performance in the presence of injury or pathology. Reserve is defined as a feature of brain structure and/or function that modifies the relationship between injury or pathology and performance on neuropsychological tasks or clinical outcomes. Reserve is challenging to study for two reasons. The first is: reserve is a hypothetical construct, and direct measures of reserve are not available. Proxy variables and latent variable models are used to attempt to operationalize reserve. The second is: in vivo measures of neuronal pathology are not widely available. It is challenging to develop and test models involving a risk factor (injury or pathology), a moderator (reserve) and an outcome (performance or clinical status) when neither the risk factor nor the moderator are measured directly. We discuss approaches for quantifying reserve with latent variable models, with emphasis on their application in the analysis of data from observational studies. Increasingly latent variable models are used to generate composites of cognitive reserve based on multiple proxies. We review the theoretical and ontological status of latent variable modeling approaches to cognitive reserve, and suggest research strategies for advancing the field. (JINS, 2011, 17, 593–601)
Questionnaire-based dimensional measures are often employed in epidemiological studies to predict the presence of psychiatric disorders. The present study sought to determine how accurately 4 dimensional mental health measures, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Neuroticism (EPQ-N), the high positive affect and anxious arousal scales from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-HPA and MASQ-AA) and a composite of all 4, predicted psychiatric caseness as diagnosed by the University of Michigan Composite International Diagnostic Interview (UM-CIDI). Community subjects were recruited through general practitioners; those who agreed to participate were sent a questionnaire containing the above measures. Subsequently, the UM-CIDI was administered by telephone to 469 subjects consisting of sibling pairs who scored most discordantly or concordantly on a composite index of the 4 measures. Logistic Regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were carried out to assess the predictive accuracy of the dimensional measures on UM-CIDI diagnosis. A total of 179 subjects, 62 men and 117 women with an average age of 42 years, were diagnosed with at least one of the following psychiatric disorders: depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, agoraphobia and panic attack. The six disorders showed high comorbidity. EPQ-N and the Composite Index were found to be very strong and accurate predictors of psychiatric caseness; they were however unable to differentiate between specific disorders. The results from the present study therefore validated the four mental health measures as being predictive of psychiatric caseness.
In treating orthopedic infections, the long-term impact of vancomycin therapy on colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the emergence of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus is unknown.
Prospective surveillance of the effect of long-term vancomycin therapy on colonization by MRSA and the emergence of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus.
Thirty-four patients with MRSA osteomyelitis that was microbiologically documented were longitudinally observed for the emergence of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus at 3 body sites (wound, anterior nares, and groin) during the initial period of vancomycin therapy and at the 2-month follow-up. Twenty patients received the standard dose (20 mg/kg/d) for 34 ± 6 days and 14 patients received a high dose (40 mg/kg/d) of vancomycin for 37 ± 9 days.
During vancomycin treatment, global MRSA carriage (all body sites) fell from 100% to 25% in the group of patients receiving the standard dose of vancomycin, and from 100% to 40% in the group receiving the high dose. During the 2-month follow-up period after vancomycin therapy, global MRSA carriage increased from 25% to 55% in the group receiving the standard dose and decreased from 43% to 36% in the group receiving the high dose.
Therapy with a high dose of vancomycin contributes to the sustained eradication of MRSA carriage without promoting the emergence of glycopeptide resistance.
A strong temperature dependence of positron annihilation with low-momentum electrons is reported for a Zr-based bulk metallic glass in the temperature range 50–300 K. The observed behavior was rationalized in terms of shallow versus deep positron traps. An interpretation of the data was presented based on the idea that there were two different types of open-volume regions: Bernal interstitial sites and thermally unstable larger holes. Bernal interstitial sites, intrinsic to the glass structure, were found to be insensitive to annealing. Alternatively, the larger holes were removed by annealing. The strong correlation between these larger holes and diffusion and viscous flow processes suggests that they may act as diffusion and flow defects.
“Hypochondriasis is a condition in which there are no established effective treatments” (Fallon et al, 1991).
Warwick's paper shows how recent advances have completely altered the previous therapeutic nihilism expressed in the above quotation. Physicians and surgeons have long been aware that medical and surgical problems turn out to have no organic cause. Joyce et al (1986) from New Zealand examined 105 people with abdominal pain who had been admitted to a surgical ward. They found that the most common surgical diagnosis was non-specific abdominal pain, closely followed by appendicitis. Those with non-specific abdominal pain contained a very interesting group of patients: they were predominantly female, did not have any physical findings, and were more anxious and conformed to the pattern of patients showing fear of illness. This group presented, in the words of the New Zealand team:
“a caricature of the female ‘non-organic’ abdominal pain patient… whose health is the greatest difficulty of her life, who fears she may suddenly fall ill, who denies having silly thoughts about health yet thinks there is something seriously wrong with her body, who admits to no problems or personal worries other than her illness, and for whom illness may be construed as a punishment. These patients also deny feeling irritable towards other people and yet lose patience with them, while being unable to express angry feelings.”
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive decline in memory, language and other cognitive functions. Deficits in attentional processes have also been suggested. A simple reaction time (RT) task was used to assess global attention in AD. The length and consistency of a warning signal given prior to the response stimulus were manipulated to determine if patients with AD and age-matched controls benefit from predictability in RT tasks. Overall reaction time was slower in the AD group than in the and control group. Both groups demonstrated significant improvement in RT with long warning signals compared to short warning signals, but only the control group benefited from the consistency of the warning. (JINS, 1995, I, 56–61.)
“The therapist can cite Bertrand Russell's observation that the degree of certainty with which one holds a belief is inversely related to the truth of that belief. Fanatics are true believers, scientists are sceptics”. (Beck et al, 1979)
I propose to describe the evolution of behavioural treatments, and the more recent leap forward made by cognitive therapy. Exciting new treatments are now available that did not exist when I was a trainee. The accepted term for these treatments is “behavioural-cognitive psychotherapy’ (BCPT). They are behavioural in the sense that emphasis is on observable behaviour, e.g. avoidance of supermarkets in agoraphobia. They are cognitive because many approaches involve working with patients' thoughts, e.g. the negative thinking of depressed patients. The treatment is psychotherapy as it is therapy that works at the mind level, rather than at say the synaptic level as pharmacotherapy does. BCPT combines well with pharmacotherapy, and other therapeutic methods such as social therapy, and so is suitable for a multidisciplinary approach to a psychiatric problem, as well as offering specific techniques for identified disorders.
Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 26 patients who underwent a modified Fontan procedure. Their age ranged from 1.8 to 31 years with a mean of 12.2 years. A valveless anastomosis was performed between the right atrium and the rudimentary right ventricle in 12 patients and between the right atrium and the pulmonary arteries in 10 patients. A cavopulmonary connection was established in the remaining four patients. Spin echo and gradient echo scans of the heart were performed in orthogonal and angulated projections. The cross-sectional area of the atrioventricular, atriopulmonary or cavopulmonary anastomoses was measured using diameters in two orthogonal imaging planes. Recordings were examined for the presence of right atrial thrombosis, the site of drainage of the coronary sinus, compression of the pulmonary veins, as well as for the presence and extent of pericardial effusions. Cine recordings were used for the assessment of the pattern of flow within the right atrium. The cross-sectional area of the anastomoses could be determined in 24 of 26 patients. This was not statistically different between patients with different surgical procedures. Patients with a cavopulmonary connection, however, tended to have a smaller anastomosis (mean 1.4 cm2/m2 BSA, S.D. 0.62) than patients with atrioventricular (mean 3.0 cm2/m2, S.D. 2.1) or atriopulmonary (2.4 cm2/m2, S.D. 1.1) connections. When compared to normal values for the size of the tricuspid valve, the size of the anastomosis was within the normal range in only four patients, it was larger in one and smaller in 19 patients. There were signs of right atrial thromboses in the scans in eight of 26 patients, as observed by two independent investigators. The site of drainage of the coronary sinus was imaged in 20 of 26 patients and was in accordance with the description of surgical procedure in eight. Compression of the right pulmonary veins by an enlarged right atrium was present in seven patients. This was severe in two children. Presence and extent of pericardial effusions could be adequately assessed in 11 of26 patients. Systolic regurgitation from the rudimentary right ventricle into the right atrium was shown in eight of 12 patients with an atrioventricular valveless anastomosis. Cine recordings revealed slow forward flow from the right atrium into the pulmonary arteries in seven of 22 patients, and there was a markedly altered pattern of intraatrial flow in two patients with anomalous systemic venous connections. Magnetic resonance imaging allows adequate examination of right atrial anatomy, determination of the size of the anastomosis with the pulmonary arteries, and semiquantitative assessment of pulmonary blood flow in the majority of patients after a modified Fontan procedure.