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We present the first data release of the SkyMapper Southern Survey, a hemispheric survey carried out with the SkyMapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in Australia. Here, we present the survey strategy, data processing, catalogue construction, and database schema. The first data release dataset includes over 66 000 images from the Shallow Survey component, covering an area of 17 200 deg2 in all six SkyMapper passbands uvgriz, while the full area covered by any passband exceeds 20 000 deg2. The catalogues contain over 285 million unique astrophysical objects, complete to roughly 18 mag in all bands. We compare our griz point-source photometry with Pan-STARRS1 first data release and note an RMS scatter of 2%. The internal reproducibility of SkyMapper photometry is on the order of 1%. Astrometric precision is better than 0.2 arcsec based on comparison with Gaia first data release. We describe the end-user database, through which data are presented to the world community, and provide some illustrative science queries.
Background: The value of clients’ reports of their experiences in therapy is widely recognized, yet quantitative methodology has rarely been used to measure clients’ self-reported perceptions of what is helpful over a single session. Aims: A video-rating method using was developed to gather data at brief intervals using process measures of client perceived experience and standardized measures of working alliance (Session Rating Scale; SRS). Data were collected over the course of a single video-recorded session of cognitive therapy (Method of Levels Therapy; Carey, 2006; Mansell et al., 2012). We examined the acceptability and feasibility of the methodology and tested the concurrent validity of the measure by utilizing theory-led constructs. Method: Eighteen therapy sessions were video-recorded and clients each rated a 20-minute session of therapy at two-minute intervals using repeated measures. A multi-level analysis was used to test for correlations between perceived levels of helpfulness and client process variables. Results: The design proved to be feasible. Concurrent validity was borne out through high correlations between constructs. A multi-level regression examined the independent contributions of client process variables to client perceived helpfulness. Client perceived control (b = 0.39, 95% CI .05 to 0.73), the ability to talk freely (b = 0.30, SE = 0.11, 95% CI .09 to 0.51) and therapist approach (b = 0.31, SE = 0.14, 95% CI .04 to 0.57) predicted client-rated helpfulness. Conclusions: We identify a feasible and acceptable method for studying continuous measures of helpfulness and their psychological correlates during a single therapy session.
A major limitation in nutritional science is the lack of understanding of the nutritional intake of free-living people. There is an inverse relationship between accuracy of reporting of energy intake by all current nutritional methodologies and body weight. In this pilot study we aim to explore whether using a novel lightweight, wearable micro-camera improves the accuracy of dietary intake assessment. Doubly labelled water (DLW) was used to estimate energy expenditure and intake over a 14-d period, over which time participants (n 6) completed a food diary and wore a micro-camera on 2 of the days. Comparisons were made between the estimated energy intake from the reported food diary alone and together with the images from the micro-camera recordings. There was an average daily deficit of 3912 kJ using food diaries to estimate energy intake compared with estimated energy expenditure from DLW (P=0·0118), representing an under-reporting rate of 34 %. Analysis of food diaries alone showed a significant deficit in estimated daily energy intake compared with estimated intake from food diary analysis with images from the micro-camera recordings (405 kJ). Use of the micro-camera images in conjunction with food diaries improves the accuracy of dietary assessment and provides valuable information on macronutrient intake and eating rate. There is a need to develop this recording technique to remove user and assessor bias.
This triennium began with an action to re-create the Terms of Reference for the Working Group Global VLBI (WG-GV). These had been lost over the years since the Group was established in 1990. Fortunately, the personal archive of one long-term member yielded a copy of the original memorandum by R. D. Ekers, which was found to coincide quite well with current practice and areas of interest. New Terms of Reference, based on modern conditions, were drafted and accepted by both IAU and URSI.
The fourth season of the Fezzan Project continued the interdisciplinary approaches of previous seasons. Geographical and environmental work focused principally in sampling sediments for scientific dating and with integrating ground observation with remote sensing data. Excavations continued at Old Germa, where the site has now reached Garamantian levels. In a separate development, the tentative identification has been made of an early mosque at the site, in an area adjacent to the G1 excavation trench. Substantial results were gained from work aimed at enhancing the important data recorded by Charles Daniels in his earlier excavations and survey in the Wadi al-Hayat. The enhancement of the Daniels' survey archive was integrated with completion of the wider prospection being undertaken by the new project. This survey included fieldwalking, standing building survey, analysis of the foggara irrigation systems and recording of rock art scenes. Finds work comprised the finalisation of a pottery type series for the Germa area, the study of small finds from the recent survey work, botanical analysis and completion of lithics recording. A programme of radiocarbon dating is now being undertaken to improve the phasing of sites and monuments. The first two volumes of final reports are now in preparation.
Many small mammals inhabiting vegetation habitats where food resources are scattered have large home ranges with limited overlap. One way that they may effectively defend large territories is to establish dominance over the limited number of sites that provide good protection from predators, since displacement from these sites could have a very high cost to intruders. To examine this hypothesis we studied the fine-scale use of habitat and spatial dispersion of all adult male Mus spretus inhabiting a 1.1 ha grassland study site near Lisbon, Portugal, by radio telemetry, at the start of the breeding season. The location of each of the 10 males was mapped every hour, 24 h/day for up to seven days. Microhabitat characteristics were compared between a random sample of points in the study site and those where mice were found. Individual ranges did not overlap, despite the close proximity of their borders and the occupation of almost all suitable habitat, suggesting that individual dispersion was strongly influenced by the presence of neighbours; mean range size was 343 ± 95 m2. Residents covered less than one-third of their total range over 24 h, though neighbours did not intrude despite the apparent opportunities. Each male territory overlapped the territory of at least two females. Mice were neither nocturnal nor crepuscular, moving around mostly during the morning and evening. They avoided open woodland or pathways, preferring grassland sites with tall vegetation and sites where shrubs, bramble, or dead wood provided additional cover. Most fixes per male (70%) were located in one to four core areas, which represented only a tiny proportion of each range (6.9 ± 0.9%). Although exclusive defence of large complex ranges is likely to be impracticable, defence of core areas seems much more feasible. Our results thus support our hypothesis that mice may be able to maintain large exclusive ranges due to a combination of high predation pressure and a limited number of sites with sufficient ground and overhead cover. This will result in a very high risk to mice entering areas where competitors have priority of access to protected sites.
To investigate coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CONS) causing bacteremia in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
A 14-month retrospective review of 47 infants in the NICU with CONS bacteremia was undertaken to determine CONS glycocalyx production, plasmid pattern, total DNA restriction fragment polymorphism, and clinical risk factors.
The isolates included 32 Staphylococcus epidermidis, six Staphylococcus haemolyticus, four Staphylococcus warneri, four Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and one Staphylococcus hominis. Sixty-five percent of S epidermidis produced glycocalyx; other species did not. Oxacillin resistance (52%) and the antibiograms of the CONS were consistent with other units in the hospital. Five similar CONS plasmid patterns were found among 16 isolates; 31 isolates had unique patterns. Extractions of total DNA from these isolates were digested using HindIII, HaeIII, and BstEII. Those with similar restriction fragment length patterns could not be linked as nosocomially transmitted among infants with bacteremia.
Our observations suggest that multiple strains of CONS infect infants in the NICU who have similar risk factors. Although current infection control practices limit transmission of a pathogen, they do not prevent CONS bacteremias.
The costs of children can be seen as the additional expenditure needed by a household with children to restore its standard of living to what it would have been without them. To implement this, one might think of comparing the expenditures of two households, one with and one without children, yet sharing a common level of welfare. As documented in a number of studies in this volume, the difficulty in this is in finding a criterion which might allow one to identify when two households of different composition are at a common living standard. While economic analysis of expenditure behaviour can provide important information on the way household spending patterns change in response to demographic change, it cannot identify preferences over composition itself and cannot identify costs of children without making assumptions about these preferences (see Pollak and Wales, 1979; Blackorby and Donaldson, 1991, and chapter 2 in this volume; Blundell and Lewbel, 1991, for example). We argue below that the placing of welfare measurement in an intertemporal context widens the set of parameters that we can identify and clarifies the nature of the welfare information that cannot be recovered from consumer behaviour. Quite simply, consumption changes over time following a change in demographic structure probably come closest to reflecting the consumption costs of children.
If intertemporal substitution responses are allowed for then the usual practice of measuring costs by concentrating on effects of children upon the within-period composition of spending seems unappealing.
The measurement of individual and household welfare stands out in applied economics for its ability to usefully blend economic theory with empirical practice. It is an area where empirical investigation clearly benefits from theoretical insight and where theoretical concepts are brought alive and appropriately focussed by the discipline of empirical relevance and policy design. There are difficult issues to face in identifying who gains and who loses from complex policy reforms. Potential Pareto improvements are scarce and the scope for useful policy recommendations may well be limited unless one is prepared to go further, attempting to evaluate the sizes of the gains and losses to assess whether, in some sense, the gains outweigh the losses.
A wide variety of empirical work has attempted to measure the impact of policy changes on the behaviour and living standards of individuals. This kind of work has flourished in recent years with the increased availability of large micro datasets and significant decreases in the costs of analysing such data using microeconometric methods. The aim of this book is to complement the existing literature by concentrating on the issues that are highlighted in empirical applications.
Earlier empirical work was based on estimated behavioural models obtained using aggregate data. However, this was limited insofar as it, at least implicitly, imposed the conditions required to be able to infer individual behaviour from aggregate data. Important contributions by Muellbauer (1975, 1976), by Jorgenson, Lau and Stoker (1980) and by Jorgenson (1990), building on the pioneering work of Gorman (1953, 1981) established exact conditions under which it is possible to make such inferences from aggregate data.
The clinicopathological features of a rare case of osteoblastoma of the nasal cavity arising from the nasal turbinate are reported and compared with four reported cases of osteoblastoma with nasal cavity involvement. Two of the five tumours involved the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The remaining three tumours were confined in the nasal cavity; one arose from nasal bone and two from nasal turbinate periosteum. Four tumours were successfully treated with local excision. One tumour recurred locally after excision; the recurrence was apparently controlled by further local excision.
The West Main Cree of northern Ontario adapted readily but selectively to the European technologies and institutions made available by the fur trade. Yet some basic cultural and psychological differences regarding the accumulation of wealth, attitudes to work, and dependence on relief and government transfers complicated Indian-European relations. In a rational attempt to compromise among today's complex choices, the Cree have abandoned their traditional bush pursuits for village life and wage employment, with hunting and trapping reduced to part-time or recreational activities.
The classification of cultures into a workable number of types for descriptive or interpretative ends has occupied anthropologists since the science was born. Many kinds of data have been selected. Within the last decade Coon's (1948) subdivision of human societies into six levels on the basis of complexity of institutions, and the attempts by Strong (1948), Armillas (1948), Steward (1949), Willey and Phillips (1955) to distinguish developmental periods in the Mesoamerican and Andean archaeological sequences may be cited. Our excuse for attempting yet another formulation is that the current schemes emphasize either ethnographic criteria that are difficult or impossible to detect archaeologically, or unique features of particular cultural configurations rather than general criteria defining more universal patterns. Starting from a point of view different from those heretofore employed, we have tried to develop a classification of cultures that is usable with both ethnographical and archaeological data and that has functional and evolutionary as well as historical and descriptive significance.
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