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The mineralogy of evaporites from the Lewis Cliff ice tongue (LCIT), Antarctica, and their mineral stabilities and transformation behaviours under different temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions have been evaluated to elucidate formation mechanism(s). A variety of sodium (Na)-rich evaporite minerals were documented using RH-controlled powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods including Na-sulfates (mirabilite and thenardite), Na-carbonate/bicarbonates (nahcolite, occasional trona and natron) and Na-borates (qilianshanite and borax). Mirabilite begins to dehydrate to thenardite, and natron to trona and natrite when exposed to room temperature, even when maintained at RH values similar to those measured at the LCIT (50–70%). The boron-mineral qilianshanite was discovered for the first time in Antarctica within the evaporite mounds. The mirabilite-rich mounds are deduced to have formed via a freezing/sublimation process that occurred in glacial or subglacial bodies of water supplied by glacial tills containing microbially oxidized sulfate ions. The needle-like nahcolite crystals growing on the exteriors of the mounds suggest a dissolution/precipitation process involving atmospheric CO2 and water. The co-existence of nahcolite and boron-bearing minerals indicates the presence of a Na+-, HCO3-- and boron-bearing alkaline brine, which produces qilianshanite as a secondary mineral by reaction of nahcolite and borax in atmospheric CO2 and H2O.
CNS drug development is rapidly evolving to meet the unique and changing demands of the fields of psychiatry and neurology. Phase I studies are traditionally focused on determining the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a new molecular entity in young healthy volunteers: first in a single ascending dose (SAD) study and then in a multiple ascending dose (MAD) study. The use of an adaptive design to examine data and modify the study in real time may also promote time- and cost-efficient identification of novel molecular entities (NMEs) that have the characteristics necessary to be successful in confirm stages of drug development research. This chapter discusses how use of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints can be incorporated into early clinical trials to determine if a drug modulates the appropriate targets, which enhances the likelihood of demonstrating efficacy in the confirm phase of clinical testing.
We present preliminary results of a MERLIN polarization study of 6.0-GHz OH masers in the W3(OH) region of massive star-formation. We have detected a small but significant amount of linear polarization in the 6031-MHz masers, as well as a much larger fraction of circular polarization. We have found many Zeeman pairs, the analysis of which (along with the results at 6035-MHz) will be presented elsewhere. MERLIN is well-suited to detecting all the single-dish maser flux in these regions, owing to its range of short baselines (tens of kilometers) and resulting sensitivity to extended emission. We have found core-halo structure in the 6031-MHz OH maser emission in the region of the highly extended 4.7-GHz OH and 6.7-GHz methanol maser filament found by Harvey-Smith & Cohen (2005, 2006).
To investigate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and self-reported physical and mental functional health measured by an anglicised short-form 36-item questionnaire (UK SF-36).
Population-based cross-sectional study.
General community in Norfolk, UK.
A total of 16 792 men and women aged 40–79 years recruited from general practice population registers as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)–Norfolk study, who completed food-frequency questionnaires in 1993–1997 and Health and Life Experiences Questionnaires 18 months later, were enrolled in the study.
Mean SF-36 physical component summary scores increased significantly with increasing total fruit and vegetable consumption in both men and women (P < 0.0001 for trend). Men and women in the top quartile of consumption compared with the bottom quartile had a significantly higher likelihood of reporting good physical health (defined as a score ≥ 55); odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11–1.53 for men and OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.11–1.48 for women, after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking, education, social class, prevalent illness and total energy intake. Exclusion of current smokers and people with prevalent illness did not alter the associations.
Higher fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with better self-reported physical functional health within a general population. Increasing daily intake by two portions of fruit and vegetables was associated with an 11% higher likelihood of good functional health. Since the current average consumption of fruit and vegetables in the UK is about three portions, the recommended ‘five a day’ strategy may have additional benefit for functional as well as other health outcomes in the population.
LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) is an innovative radio telescope optimized for the frequency range 30–240 MHz. The telescope is realized as a phased aperture array without any moving parts. Digital beam forming allows the telescope to point to any part of the sky within a second. Transient buffering makes retrospective imaging of explosive short-term events possible. The scientific focus of LOFAR will initially be on four key science projects (KSPs): (i) Detection of the formation of the very first stars and galaxies in the universe during the so-called epoch of reionization by measuring the power spectrum of the neutral hydrogen 21-cm line (Shaver et al. 1999) on the ∼ 5′ scale; (ii) Low-frequency surveys of the sky with of order 108 expected new sources; (iii) All-sky monitoring and detection of transient radio sources such as γ-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and exo-planets (Farrell et al. 2004); and (iv) Radio detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos (Falcke & Gorham 2003) allowing for the first time access to particles beyond 1021 eV (Scholten et al. 2006). Apart from the KSPs open access for smaller projects is also planned. Here we give a brief description of the telescope.