Oligosaccharides are broadly present on Leishmania cell surfaces. They can be useful for the leishmaniases diagnosis and also helpful in identifying new cell markers for the disease. The disaccharide Galα1-3Galβ is the immunodominant saccharide in Leishmania cell surface and is the unique non-reducing terminal glycosphingolipids structure recognized by anti-α-Gal. This study describes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to measure serum levels of anti-α-galactosyl (α-Gal) antibodies in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Optimal ELISA conditions were established and two neoglycoproteins (NGP) containing the Galα1-3Gal terminal fraction (Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-HAS and Galα1-3Gal-HAS) and one Galα1-3Gal NGP analogue (Galα1-3Galβ1-3GlcNAc-HAS) were used as antigens. Means of anti-α-Gal antibody titres of CL patients were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the healthy individuals for all NGPs tested. Sensitivity and specificity of all NGPs ranged from 62.2 to 78.4% and 58.3 to 96.7%, respectively. In conclusion, the NGPs can be used for CL diagnosis.