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The species Homostichanthus duerdeni and Anemonia sargassensis are recorded for the first time in the Mexican Caribbean. Homostichanthus duerdeni is taxonomically diagnosed, and images from living specimens, including external and internal features and cnidae, are provided. The extension of the geographical distribution range of A. sargassensis is discussed, as well as the taxonomic status of the previous records of actiniarians in the Mexican Caribbean. An updated list of sea anemones in the region is provided, comprising 15 species in 11 localities along the Mexican Caribbean.
The shallow water sea anemone Phymanthus crucifer exhibits
three distinct morphotypes, characterized by the presence or absence of
protuberances on the marginal tentacles, as well as intermediate forms. The
taxonomic status of the different morphotypes and the diagnostic value of
protuberances on the tentacles have been debated for this species and the
family Phymanthidae. We analysed the external and internal anatomy, cnidae
and three mitochondrial molecular markers for representatives of each of the
three morphotypes. In addition, we address the putative monophyly of the
family Phymanthidae based on molecular data. With the exception of the
protuberances, our morphological and molecular results show no differences
among the three morphotypes; thus, we consider this feature to be
intraspecific variability within P. crucifer. Furthermore,
molecular data reveal that the family Phymanthidae is not monophyletic. In
addition, we discuss several diagnostic morphological features of the family
The objective of the study was to design and evaluate a pilot programme aimed at promoting the active ageing of older adults at the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study was conducted in three stages: (a) design; (b) implementation; and (c) before–after evaluation through analysis of changes in functional status, occupational functioning and health-related quality of life. To overcome the limitations of the study design, we evaluated the effect of 80 per cent adherence to the programme on the outcome variables using the generalised linear regression models (GLM). Two hundred and thirty-nine older adults agreed to participate, of whom 65 per cent completed the programme. Most were women; the average age was 77 years. Adherence to the programme was higher than 75 per cent for the group who completed active ageing services and less than 60 per cent for the drop-out group. Overall, 46 per cent of older adults reached an adherence level of 80 per cent or higher. Adherence was significantly associated with improved quality of life total score (coefficient 2.7, p<0.0001) and occupational functioning total score (coefficient 2.2, p<0.0001). Participation of older adults in an active ageing programme may improve their health-related quality of life and occupational functioning. It is necessary to identify the potential barriers and to implement strategies to improve the recruitment and retention rates during the intervention.
Efficient diagnosis of an underlying genetic aetiology in a patient with congenital heart disease is essential to optimising clinical care. Copy number variants are one aetiology of congenital heart disease; the majority are identifiable by targeted fluorescence in situ hybridisation or array comparative genomic hybridisation, not by classical cytogenetic analysis. This study assessed the utility of array comparative genomic hybridisation as a first-tier diagnostic test for neonates with congenital heart disease.
A prospective chart review of neonates with congenital heart disease in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit at Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC was performed. Patients were tested by array comparative genomic hybridisation and classical cytogenetic analysis simultaneously. Data collected included all chromosome abnormalities detected, physical examination findings, and imaging results. McNemar’s test was used to compare detection of array comparative genomic hybridisation and classical cytogenetic analysis.
Of 45 patients, three (6.7%) had an abnormality detected by classical cytogenetic analysis and an additional 10 (22.2%) had a copy number variant detected by array comparative genomic hybridisation, highlighting an increased detection rate (p=0.008). Several of these copy number variants had unclear clinical significance, requiring additional investigation. The prevalence of dysmorphology and/or comorbidity in this population was 72%. Identification of dysmorphic features was greater when assessed by a geneticist than by providers of different subspecialties.
Array comparative genomic hybridisation has significant clinical utility as a first-tier test in this population, but it carries the potential for incidental findings and results of uncertain clinical significance. Collaboration between cardiologists and medical geneticists is essential to providing optimal clinical care.
To evaluate the effects on anencephaly risk of the interaction between the maternal profile of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine and the 677C→T polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR).
Case–control study paired (1:1) on maternity clinic, date of birth and state of residence. Cases of anencephaly were identified using the Registry of the Mexican Neural Tube Defect Epidemiological Surveillance System. Case and control mothers were selected from the same maternity departments. All mothers completed a structured questionnaire and blood samples were obtained to determine the MTHFR 677C→T polymorphism and biochemical profile.
Mexico, Puebla and Guerrero states, Mexico.
A total of 151 mothers of cases and controls were enrolled from March 2000 to February 2001. We had complete information on biochemical profile and MTHFR C677T polymorphism for ninety-eight mothers of cases and ninety-one mothers of controls.
The adjusted models show that the risk of anencephaly in mothers with 677TT genotype was reduced by 18 % (OR = 0·82; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·94) for each 1 ng/ml increment in serum folate. In terms of tertiles, mothers with 677TT genotype with serum folate levels in the upper tertile (>14·1 ng/ml) had a 95 % lower risk to have a child with anencephaly than mothers with serum folate levels in the first and second tertiles (P trend = 0·012).
Our data agree with the hypothesis of a gene–nutrient interaction between MTHFR 677C→T polymorphism and folate status. We observed a protective effect on anencephaly risk only in mothers with 677TT genotype as serum folate levels increased.
We present extensive pseudopotential density functional theory calculations dedicated to analyze the stability, electronic properties, and structural isomerism in Cu6 clusters. We consider structures of different symmetries and charge states. Our total energy calculations reveal a strong competition between two- and three-dimensional atomic arrays, the later being mostly energetically preferred for the anionic structures. The bond lengths and electronic spectra strongly depend on the local atomic environment, a result that is expected to strongly influence the catalytic activity of our clusters. Using the nudged elastic band method we analyze the interconversion processes between different Cu6 isomers. Complex atomic relaxations are obtained when we study the transition between different cluster structures; however relatively small energy barriers of approximately 0.3 eV accompany the atomic displacements. Interestingly, we obtain that by considering positively charged Cu6+ systems we reduce further the energy barriers opposing the interconversion process. The previous results could imply that, under a range of experimental conditions, it should be possible to observe different Cu6cluster structures in varying proportions.
The following document provides a summary of the guidelines and recommendations for paediatric cardiac intensive care training as a requirement for recognition as a European paediatric cardiologist. It is therefore primarily targeting paediatric cardiology trainees in Europe, including those doctors who might wish to become experts in cardiac intensive care. These recommendations represent a frame for consistency, will evolve, and may be adapted to specific institutional requirements. They will be complemented by a learning module to be provided by our Association in the near future.
Evidence of the effects of soft drinks consumption on BMI and lifestyle in adult populations is mixed and quite limited. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of soft drinks consumption with BMI and lifestyle in a representative Mediterranean population.
Two independent, population-based, cross-sectional (2000 and 2005) studies. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Weight and height were measured.
Random sample of the 35- to 74-year-old population (3910 men and 4285 women).
Less than half (41·7 %) of the population consumed soft drinks; the mean consumption was 36·2 ml/d. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle increased with the frequency of soft drinks consumption (P = 0·025). Daily soft drinks consumption significantly increased the risk of low adherence to the Mediterranean diet (OR = 0·57, 95 % CI 0·44, 0·74 v. top tertile of Mediterranean diet score). Multiple linear regression analyses, controlled for potential confounders, revealed that an increment in soft drinks consumption of 100 ml was associated with a 0·21 kg/m2 increase in BMI (P = 0·001). Only implausibly low reports of energy consumption showed a null association between soft drinks consumption and BMI.
Soft drinks consumption was not embedded in a healthy diet context and was positively associated with BMI and sedentary lifestyle in this Mediterranean population.
Thromboembolic events are a serious complication occurring in critically ill children admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit. Although enoxaparin is one of the current anticoagulants of choice, dosages in children are extrapolated from adult guidelines. Recent data suggest that this population may need a higher dose than what is currently recommended to achieve target anti-factor Xa levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether children less than 2 years old admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit require a higher enoxaparin dose than that currently recommended to achieve target anti-factor Xa levels.
Retrospective chart review including patients who received enoxaparin for the treatment or prophylaxis of venous thrombosis between January, 2005 and October, 2007. Patients were classified as younger and older as well as prophylactic and therapeutic on the basis of age and enoxaparin dose, respectively. Younger patients were those 2 month old or less and older patients were those older than 2 months of age.
A total of 31 patients were identified; 13 (42%) were 2 months or younger and 25 (81%) were postoperative patients. Ten (32%) received prophylactic and 21 (68%) received therapeutic enoxaparin doses. To achieve optimal anti-factor Xa levels, enoxaparin dose was increased in all groups and reached statistical significance in all patients except those older than 2 months who received prophylactic enoxaparin. An average of 2.8 dosage adjustments was needed. No bleeding complications were reported.
Young children, infants, and neonates admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit required a significantly higher enoxaparin dose than that currently recommended to achieve target anti-factor Xa levels.
We describe an ongoing, large-scale, photometric and spectroscopic survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) periphery. This survey uses Washington M, T2 + DDO51 photometry to identify distant LMC red giant branch (RGB) star candidates; multi-object spectroscopy is used to confirm the stellar surface gravities of these RGB stars and their association with the LMC (e.g., through radial velocities). The survey now encompasses hundreds of fields ranging from the LMC center with full azimuthal coverage around the LMC and out to 23° from the LMC center. We have confirmed the existence of RGB stars with (the unusual) Magellanic velocities out to the radial limit of this survey coverage. From data in a subsample of these fields, we show that this extended population of stars makes up a diffuse structure enveloping the LMC with a two-dimensional distribution resembling a classical halo with a shallow de Vaucouleurs profile and a broad metallicity spread around a typical mean value of [Fe/H] ~ −1.0.
Potassium (K+) channels are believed to regulate mammalian sperm acquisition of fertilising capacity. However, the molecular identity of these proteins in sperm has not been elucidated. In this report, using immunoconfocal and electron microscopy we show that a minimum of four different classes of K+ channels (Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv3.1 and GIRK1) are present and regionally distributed over the surface of mouse epididymal sperm. In addition, the use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on RNA from mouse spermatogenic cells allowed the amplification of multiple transcripts corresponding to the channels identified by immunocytochemistry. Consistent with this, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings showed the expression of at least two different outwardly rectifying K+ currents in spermatogenic cells.
NASA’s Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), scheduled for launch in 2009, will determine the positions of thousands of stars as faint as V = 20 to a precision better than 4 microarcseconds (µas). A key part of the mission is the Astrometric Grid, which is a reference frame of several thousand stars with V ≤ 13 against which all relative measurements will be calibrated. To serve as a reliable inertial reference frame, the Grid must be astrometrically stable against photocenter jitter (from planets, binary companions, flaring or spotting) at the ~ 4µas level. Sub–solar metallicity giant stars, by virtue of their intrinsic luminosity, can probe the Galaxy to greater distances than almost any other stellar type at the same apparent magnitude. Thus, distant (> 3 kpc) giants with V < 13 will have proportionately smaller astrometric jitter compared to other potential Astrometric Grid star candidates. The Grid Giant Star Survey is a patchwork all-sky survey to find sub–solar metallicity K giants for the Grid, and to provide a unique database for studies of Galactic stellar populations. We describe here the survey characteristics and give examples of results to date.
Ricardo Ffrench-Davis, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Santiago, Chile,
Oscar Muñoz, Corporación de Investigaciones Economkas para Latinoamerka (CIEPLAN), Santiago, Chile,
José Gabriel Palma, University of Cambridge
An important feature of Latin American economic development historically has been the interaction between external and domestic economic structures. Links between the Latin American economies and the world markets increased in importance during the international trade boom towards the end of the nineteenth century when a production structure based on raw materials for export (and imports of manufactures) was consolidated. After the end of the Second World War, the region's development efforts were directed to transforming the structure of production and reducing external dependence. Import substitution industrialization (ISI) produced some positive results. The regional economy expanded rapidly. From 1950 to 1981 gross domestic product (GDP) increased at an average annual rate of 5.3 per cent. However, while average income per capita increased at an annual rate of 2.6 per cent, vast inequalities in the distribution of the benefits of economic growth persisted throughout the region – between social groups, between urban and rural areas, between regions within countries and between countries. At the same time, new forms of dependency on the international economy emerged. ISI and the diversification of consumption patterns in the 1950s and 1960s gave rise to the adoption of increasingly complex imported technologies, capital intensive as well as highly dependent upon imported inputs. Also, the 1960s saw a significant inflow of direct foreign investment concentrated in the production of manufactured import substitutes, benefiting from high levels of effective protection. Given the sizeable import content of these industries and high profit rates, the net savings of foreign currency were sometimes negligible or even negative.
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