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The purpose of the present study was to analyse the lipid profile in men and women differentiated according to energy expenditure during sports participation (EESPORT), energy expenditure during active leisure time (EEALT) and overall energy expenditure (EETOTAL).
The subjects were grouped by sex, age, EESPORT, EEALT and EETOTAL. Group differences were analysed using analyses of covariance with BMI and alcohol consumption as covariates.
Physical activity was assessed using the Flemish Physical Activity Computerised Questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and the ratio TC:HDL-C.
The study sample consisted of 1170 Flemish men and women between 18 and 75 years of age.
Differences in lipid profile were observed in the younger age group (<45 years), all in favour of the most active group. More specifically, when differentiating by EEALT and EETOTAL, men had a healthier lipid profile for TAG, HDL-C and TC:HDL-C. Differentiation according to EESPORT revealed the same significant results except for TAG. In women significant results for HDL-C, LDL-C and TC:HDL-C were found when differentiated by EESPORT.
Men and women <45 years of age with higher levels of energy expenditure due to sport show a better lipid profile than their sedentary counterparts. When differentiating subjects according to energy expenditure during active leisure time or overall energy expenditure, only in men was a healthier lipid profile observed in favour of the most active subjects.
To evaluate gender differences for levels of physical activity, for sedentary behaviour and for psychosocial correlates in children, to evaluate whether psychosocial correlates cluster in meaningful ways and to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behaviour differ between children of clusters, differentiated by the level of perceived barriers and benefits, attitudes, social support and self-efficacy.
Cross-sectional study using the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire.
Questionnaires to be filled out by the children and one of their parents, contacted through the school system.
A sample of 1124 10- to 11-year-olds (579 boys and 545 girls).
Girls were found to be less active than boys, with boys scoring better for social support, perceived benefits and self-efficacy compared with girls. The way of clustering differed between boys and girls. Boys were allocated to three clusters: one cluster with positive correlates towards physical activity, labelled ‘positives’; one with negative correlates, labelled ‘negatives’; and one characterised mainly by high perceived barriers, labelled ‘hindered’;. In both genders the highest levels of physical activity were found in the ‘positives’;, the lowest in the ‘negatives’;. In girls a fourth cluster was identified, characterised mainly by low perceived barriers and low social support. Physical activity levels in the girls of this cluster, labelled ‘indifferents’;, were the second highest.
More research is needed to further characterise these clusters. To prevent the physical activity decline during the transition from childhood to adulthood, novel interventions need to be explored that focus on children of the clusters with the most negative correlates.
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