Direct ion beam deposition of carbon films on silicon in the ion energy range of 15–500eV and temperature range of 25–800°C has been studied using mass selected C+ ions under ultrahigh vacuum. The films were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy and diffraction analysis. Films deposited at room temperature consist mainly of amorphous carbon. Deposition at a higher temperature, or post-implantation annealing leads to formation of microcrystalline graphite. A deposition temperature above 800°C favors the formation of microcrystalline graphite with a preferred orientation in the (0001) direction. No evidence of diamond formation was observed in these films.