To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The diet of most adults is low in fish and, therefore, provides limited quantities of the long-chain, omega-3 fatty acids (LCn-3FAs), eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA, DHA). Since these compounds serve important roles in the brain, we sought to determine if healthy adults with low-LCn-3FA consumption would exhibit improvements in neuropsychological performance and parallel changes in brain morphology following repletion through fish oil supplementation.
In a randomized, controlled trial, 271 mid-life adults (30–54 years of age, 118 men, 153 women) consuming ⩽300 mg/day of LCn-3FAs received 18 weeks of supplementation with fish oil capsules (1400 mg/day of EPA and DHA) or matching placebo. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery examining four cognitive domains: psychomotor speed, executive function, learning/episodic memory, and fluid intelligence. A subset of 122 underwent neuroimaging before and after supplementation to measure whole-brain and subcortical tissue volumes.
Capsule adherence was over 95%, participant blinding was verified, and red blood cell EPA and DHA levels increased as expected. Supplementation did not affect performance in any of the four cognitive domains. Exploratory analyses revealed that, compared to placebo, fish oil supplementation improved executive function in participants with low-baseline DHA levels. No changes were observed in any indicator of brain morphology.
In healthy mid-life adults reporting low-dietary intake, supplementation with LCn-3FAs in moderate dose for moderate duration did not affect neuropsychological performance or brain morphology. Whether salutary effects occur in individuals with particularly low-DHA exposure requires further study.
There is a growing research interest in determining whether changes in the Global status of DNA methylation are related to the environment, in particular, to one-carbon metabolism. So, our aim was to investigate the effect of dietary methyl-group donor intake (methionine, folate, choline, betaine, vitamins B2, B6, and B12), biomarkers (total folate, UMFA, 5-methylTHF, hcy, vitamins B6 and B12 concentrations) and genetic variants (polymorphisms involved in one-carbon metabolism) on Global DNA methylation in a population exposed to mandatory flour fortification with folic acid. A cross-sectional study of health and living conditions was conducted among a representative sample of residents in São Paulo-Brazil. The mean of Global DNA methylation was lower in young people than in adults and the elderly (p=0.049). No differences between genotypes of polymorphism and Global DNA methylation mean were identified. We observed that the increase in betaine intake led to an absolute change in percentage of DNA methylation (β=0.0005, p=0.024) using multiple regression. Betaine intake alone was associated with an absolute change in percentage of Global DNA methylation. The study did not find an association between Global DNA methylation and folate status even in a population exposed to mandatory flour fortification with folic acid.
Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized skeletal muscle disorder, associated with adverse outcomes. Aging causes primary sarcopenia, while secondary causes include chronic kidney disease (CKD), long-term use of glucocorticoids and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate: the prevalence of sarcopenia using guidelines recommended by The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP,2010; EWGSOP2,2018) and the Foundation of the National Institutes of Health (FNIH); and analyse the relationship between sarcopenia and body adiposity in adult renal transplant recipients (RTR) . This was a cross-sectional study in adult RTR (body mass index (BMI) ≥18.5kg/m2). Body composition was evaluated by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometry. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) by CKD-EPI equation. The prevalence of sarcopenia in adult RTR (n=185; 57% men, 50 years and eGFR 55.80±1.52ml/min.) was 7% (FNIH), 11% (EWGSOP2) and 17% (EWGSOP). Low muscle mass, muscle function, and physical performance affected respectively up to 28%, 46% and 10% of the participants. Body adiposity evaluated by anthropometry and by DXA (% trunk fat) was lower in participants with sarcopenia according to EWGSOP and EWGSOP2. Conversely, according to FNIH criteria, RTR with sarcopenia presented higher waist-to-height-ratio. This study suggests that: adult RTR sarcopenia prevalence varies according to the diagnostic criteria; low muscle mass, low muscle function and low physical performance are common conditions; body adiposity association with sarcopenia depends on the criteria used to define this syndrome; and FNIH criteria detected higher adiposity in individuals with sarcopenia.
The characterization of proteome and peptidome of adolescent mothers’ breast milk brings important information to both mother’s and infant’s health; however, it has not been investigated. Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins have numerous functions. The bioactivity of breast milk peptides includes anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities and regulation of gastrointestinal function. We aimed to characterize the proteome and peptidome of mature breast milk of adolescent mothers and investigate whether it is affected by lactational period. We used a combination of electrophoretic and nLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS techniques, and bioinformatics to explore the proteome of human skim milk expressed by lactating adolescents in two groups according to postpartum period (up to three, and over five weeks postpartum). This is the first study that analyzed the proteome of adolescent mothers’ breast milk, produced during two periods of lactation using 1D-electrophoresis combined with nLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis. Our results showed that the protein composition of adolescent milk varies independently of lactation stage and showed high inter-individual variation. Four hundred and twenty-four proteins were identified in skim milk, of which 137 proteins were common to both groups. Most of the peptides found in adolescents’ breast milk were not derived from major proteins in milk. Association maps showed several interactions between groups of peptides that pointed to the relevance of breast milk peptides to neonatal defensive system.
Decision-making (DM) is a component of executive functioning. DM is essential to make proper decisions regarding important life and health issues. DM can be impaired in cognitive disorders among older adults, but current literature is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the DM profile in participants with and without cognitive impairment.
Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study on cognitive aging.
143 older adults.
University-based memory clinic.
Patients comprised three groups after inclusion and exclusion criteria: healthy controls (n=29), mild cognitive impairment (n=81) and dementia (n=33). Participants were evaluated using an extensive neuropsychological protocol. DM profile was evaluated by the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between age, sex, educational level, estimated intelligence quotient (IQ), cognitive disorders, depressive or anxiety symptoms, and the DM profiles.
The most prevalent DM profile was the vigilant type, having a prevalence of 64.3%. The vigilant profile also predominated in all three groups. The multinomial logistic regression showed that the avoidance profile (i.e. buck-passing) was associated with a greater presence of dementia (p=0.046) and depressive symptoms (p=0.024), but with less anxious symptoms (p=0.047). The procrastination profile was also associated with depressive symptoms (p=0.048). Finally, the hypervigilant profile was associated with a lower pre-morbid IQ (p=0.007).
Older adults with cognitive impairment tended to make more unfavorable choices and have a more dysfunctional DM profile compared to healthy elders.
At an abstract level, it is easy to make an argument for the virtue of an effort to isolate and examine the impact of party structure. Political parties are the great intermediary institutions of democratic politics. Yet they inevitably transform and not just transmit public wishes. It is hard to imagine how their internal structure would not be central to that transformation. So the effort to unpack these influences should be inherently virtuous, that is, intrinsically connected to question of policy responsiveness and democratic representation. Yet the moment this effort shifts to the operational level, embedding a theoretical argument in the practical details of American politics, problems surface, likewise inherently.
The long war over party structure in American politics, rooted in the 1820s and joined in the 1880s, was still alive and well when postwar political science returned to its fortunes in the 1960s. Yet an array of systematic indicators of these fortunes, beginning in the 1950s and running through the 2010s, suggests that this war did indeed have a major turning point around 1970. Impelled afresh by a lesser but parallel conflict over the proper institutional forms for presidential selection, the old model of organized parties, built around a hierarchy of long-serving party officeholders, was decisively defeated by a newer model of volunteer parties, built instead around participatory networks of issue activists. That much of the existing study of this long war was mainly just confirmed by systematic contemporary measures.
A long-standing debate in American politics is about the proper structure for political parties and the relative power that should be afforded to party professionals versus issue activists. In this book, Byron E. Shafer and Regina L. Wagner draw systematically on new data and indexes to evaluate the extent to which party structure changed from the 1950s on, and what the consequences have been for policy responsiveness, democratic representation, and party alignment across different issue domains. They argue that the reputed triumph of volunteer parties since the 1970s has been less comprehensive than the orthodox narrative assumes, but that the balance of power did shift, with unintended and sometimes perverse consequences. In the process of evaluating its central questions, this book gives an account of how partisan alignments evolved with newly empowered issue activists and major post-war developments from the civil rights movement to the culture wars.
Once upon a time – and for a very long time – party structure was a central concern of those who followed American politics, both theoretically and practically. The internal structure of political parties was taken to shape what they did in a major way, and what they did was understood to be integral to American democracy. James Bryce in The American Commonwealth saw what we have called organized parties as the distinguishing feature of politics in the United States and viewed it as a kind of pathology. Henry Jones Ford in The Rise and Growth of American Politics saw the same parties as instead a saving grace, the single feature of politics in America that rescued it from an unworkable Constitution and continuing policy frustration.
The more comprehensive but also more dispersed and more gradual triumph of the participatory model that was evident in state party politics along with the more focused triumph of the same thrust in the politics of presidential selection were inevitably intertwined. Established volunteer parties were much easier to reform at the presidential level. Successful reforms for presidential selection often spilled over into general reform efforts within organized parties. But in the end, the old world summarized in the overviews of Elazar and Mayhew, as reflected in the more systematic scale of structural indicators developed here, did indeed undergo the upheaval perceived by Mayhew and Ware around the pivotal year of 1970. Table 1.4 summarizes the distribution of party types that resulted.
Social welfare is almost universally taken to be the spine of the New Deal party system. So if scholars argue about its role in modern times, this is usually just an argument over the degree to which it still plays that role or, alternatively, the degree to which the role is in decline. While the consensus is not as neat on the main policy competitor in this successor world, the leading alternative is ordinarily some variant of cultural values. Accordingly, we open Chapter 3 by giving cultural values the same compare-and-contrast treatment given to social welfare and civil rights in Chapter 2. In the process, cultural values serves simultaneously as the leading example of the way in which a major policy domain can lack any partisan alignment and as a testimonial to the power of differential party structures when the domain finally comes to share an alignment common to other major realms.
While the rise of celebrities-turned-politicians has been well documented and theorized, how their bids for office are treated by the establishment press has been less closely examined. Research on celebrity politics on the one hand, and on journalism standards on the other, have rarely been brought into conversation with one another. Here, we draw from both literatures to explore how the press covered Donald Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign. Prior research on political journalism would likely have predicted that Trump, with his lack of conventional political experience and a career in reality TV, would have been treated to derisive, dismissive press coverage, which we refer to as “clown” coverage. But Trump’s fame and wealth, and the high entertainment value of his campaign, would also lead the media to cover him heavily. We argue that the collision of entertainment-infused politics with traditional journalism practices created a profound dilemma for the press’s ability to cover the campaign coherently, and that the press responded to this dilemma by giving Trump as much clown-like coverage as serious coverage, throughout not just the primary but also the general election. We support our argument through qualitative evidence from interviews with journalists and other political insiders, and quantitative evidence from a content analysis of New York Times and Washington Post coverage of Trump at key points throughout the campaign.
When hydrological disasters occur in local rural communities, the demand for health services increases, especially in primary healthcare.1 Health services are essential in the response to a disaster where nurses all over the world play a significant role.
To identify nurses’ competencies when responding to disasters caused by floods in the rural area.
A descriptive, exploratory, and qualitative study was developed. The Critical Incidents Technique was adopted. Twenty public health nurses who worked during the flood season in the years of 2014 and 2015 in a rural area in Southern Brazil were interviewed. Critical incidents and requirements identified in the empirical data gave rise to the development of the competencies.
Thirty competencies were identified and classified in the following domains: leadership and management, teamwork, health care, community-oriented, communication, psychological support, health surveillance, and education.
Although the competencies could be related to the established international competencies for the nurse in disasters, some were described only in this study. They can contribute to the education and practice of nurses in primary health care, strengthening its capacity to face disaster situations by flood in the rural area.
In 2016, Chicago Shakespeare Theater and the Stratford Festival of Canada mounted marathons through Shakespearean history to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the death of Shakespeare with Tug of War and Breath of Kings. Both productions invited parallels to contemporary political events in their promotion and design, just as the original performances of these works in the Shakespearean era used past events to comment on present realities. Endurathons for cast and audience alike, Tug of War and Breath of Kings used double-casting, stylized treatments of violence and 'firsts' for each company to sweeten the bitter pill of these historical narratives.