Schistosomiasis and malnutrition are often overlapped in poor communities, resulting in disproportionately high mortality rates. Currently, fragmented data make it difficult to define the relationship between diet and schistosomiasis. Thus, we systematically review the preclinical evidence on the impact of diet in Schistosoma mansoni infection. From a structured search, we recovered 27 original articles. All studies used mice and most of them investigated hypoproteic (70.37%), hyperlipidic (22.22%) or vitamin-deficient (7.41%) diets. Diets based on carbohydrate, zinc or milk supplementation were investigated at a reduced frequency (3.70% each). Hypoproteic diets attenuated parasitic load and granulomatous inflammation, but also reduced host resistance to S. mansoni infection, determining higher mortality rates. By stimulating steatohepatitis, parasitic load and granulomatous inflammation, hyperlipidic diets increase organ damage and mortality in infected animals. Although a high-sugar diet and vitamin restriction potentiate and zinc supplementation attenuates S. mansoni infection, the current evidence for these diets remains inconclusive. Analysis of methodological quality indicated that the current evidence is at high risk of bias due to incomplete characterization of the experimental design, diet composition and treatment protocols. From the bias analysis, we report methodological limitations that should be considered to avoid systematic reproduction of inconsistent and poorly reproducible experimental designs.