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The initial state of learner spontaneous input processing in foreign language learning, as well as the extent to which this processing leads to intake, is of central importance to theoreticians and teachers alike. In this collection of original studies, leading experts examine a range of issues, such as what learners do when faced with a language they know little or nothing about, what factors appear to mediate beginning learners' processing of input, how beginners treat two types of information - form and meaning - in the input, and how adult cognition deals with stimulus frequency at this initial stage. This book provides a microscopic view on learners' processing of foreign language input at the early stages of learning, and evaluates a variety of methodological options within the context of ab initio processing of foreign languages other than English, such as German, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, and Spanish.