To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
As demonstrated by neuroimaging data, the human brain contains systems that control responses to threat. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality predicts that individual differences in the reactivity of these brain systems produce anxiety and fear-related personality traits. Here we discuss some of the challenges in testing this theory and, as an example, present a pilot study that aimed to dissociate brain activity during pursuit by threat and goal conflict. We did this by translating the Mouse Defense Test Battery for human fMRI use. In this version, dubbed the Joystick Operated Runway Task (JORT), we repeatedly exposed 24 participants to pursuit and goal conflict, with and without threat of electric shock. The runway design of JORT allowed the effect of threat distance on brain activation to be evaluated independently of context. Goal conflict plus threat of electric shock caused deactivation in a network of brain areas that included the fusiform and middle temporal gyri, as well as the default mode network core, including medial frontal regions, precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus, and laterally the inferior parietal and angular gyri. Consistent with earlier research, we also found that imminent threat activated the midbrain and that this effect was significantly stronger during the simple pursuit condition than during goal conflict. Also consistent with earlier research, we found significantly greater hippocampal activation during goal conflict than pursuit by imminent threat. In conclusion, our results contribute knowledge to theories linking anxiety disorders to altered functioning in defensive brain systems and also highlight challenges in this research domain.
We present Phantom, a fast, parallel, modular, and low-memory smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code developed over the last decade for astrophysical applications in three dimensions. The code has been developed with a focus on stellar, galactic, planetary, and high energy astrophysics, and has already been used widely for studies of accretion discs and turbulence, from the birth of planets to how black holes accrete. Here we describe and test the core algorithms as well as modules for magnetohydrodynamics, self-gravity, sink particles, dust–gas mixtures, H2 chemistry, physical viscosity, external forces including numerous galactic potentials, Lense–Thirring precession, Poynting–Robertson drag, and stochastic turbulent driving. Phantom is hereby made publicly available.
Schizophrenia affects 1% of the population. Clozapine is the only medication licensed for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and is intensively monitored to prevent harm from neutropenia. Clozapine is also associated with increased risk of pneumonia although the mechanism is poorly understood.
To investigate the potential association between clozapine and antibody deficiency.
Patients taking clozapine and patients who were clozapine-naive and receiving alternative antipsychotics were recruited and completed a lifestyle, medication and infection-burden questionnaire. Serum total immunoglobulins (immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM) and specific IgG antibodies to haemophilus influenzae type B, tetanus and IgG, IgA and IgM to pneumococcus were measured.
Immunoglobulins were all significantly reduced in the clozapine-treated group (n = 123) compared with the clozapine-naive group (n = 111). Odds ratios (ORs) for a reduction in clozapine:control immunoglobulin values below the fifth percentile were IgG, OR = 6.00 (95% CI 1.31–27.44); IgA, OR = 16.75 (95% CI 2.18–128.60); and IgM, OR = 3.26 (95% CI 1.75–6.08). These findings remained significant despite exclusion of other potential causes of hypogammaglobulinaemia. In addition, duration on clozapine was associated with decline in IgG. A higher proportion of the clozapine-treated group reported taking more than five courses of antibiotics in the preceding year (5.3% (n = 5) versus 1% (n = 1).
Clozapine use was associated with significantly reduced immunoglobulin levels and an increased proportion of patients using more than five antibiotic courses in a year. Antibody testing is not included in existing clozapine monitoring programmes but may represent a mechanistic explanation and modifiable risk factor for the increased rates of pneumonia and sepsis-related mortality previously reported in this vulnerable cohort.
Declaration of interest
S.J. has received support from CSL Behring, Shire, LFB, Biotest, Binding Site, Sanofi, GSK, UCB Pharma, Grifols, BPL SOBI, Weatherden, Zarodex and Octapharma for projects, advisory boards, meetings, studies, speaker and clinical trials.
Since the late twentieth century, the development of cybernetics, physical computing and robotics has led artists and researchers to create musical systems that explore the relationship between human bodies and mechanical systems. Anthropomorphic musical robots and bodily integrated ‘cyborg’ sensor interfaces explore complementary manifestations of what we call the ‘anthropomorphic analogy’, which probes the boundary between human artificer and artificial machine, encouraging listeners and viewers to humanise non-musical machines and understand the human body itself as a mechanical instrument.
These new approaches to the anthropomorphic analogy benefit from historical contextualisation. At numerous points in the history of Western art music, philosophers, critics, composers, performers and instrument designers have considered the relationship between human musician and musical instrument, often blurring the line between the two. Consideration of historical examples enriches understandings of anthropomorphism in contemporary music technology.
This article juxtaposes the anthropomorphic analogy in contemporary musical culture with manifestations of anthropomorphism in early seventeenth-century Europe. The first half of the seventeenth century witnessed a flourishing of instrumentality of all sorts. Musical instruments were linked with the telescope, the clock, the barometer, the paintbrush, and many other instruments and machines, and these came to be understood as vehicles for the creation of knowledge. This flourishing of instrumental culture created new opportunities for contemplation and aesthetic wonder, as theorists considered the line between human being and machine – between nature and artifice. Manifestations of the anthropomorphic analogy in seventeenth-century conceptions of musical instruments help to contextualise and explain similar articulations of the anthropomorphic analogy in the present day.
Objectives: To evaluate prospective and retrospective memory abilities in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) Veterans with and without a self-reported history of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: Sixty-one OEF/OIF/OND Veterans, including Veterans with a self-reported history of blast-related mTBI (mTBI group; n=42) and Veterans without a self-reported history of TBI (control group; n=19) completed the Memory for Intentions Test, a measure of prospective memory (PM), and two measures of retrospective memory (RM), the California Verbal Learning Test-II and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. Results: Veterans in the mTBI group exhibited significantly lower PM performance than the control group, but the groups did not differ in their performance on RM measures. Further analysis revealed that Veterans in the mTBI group with current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD+) demonstrated significantly lower performance on the PM measure than Veterans in the control group. PM performance by Veterans in the mTBI group without current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD-) was intermediate between the mTBI/PTSD+ and control groups, and results for the mTBI/PTSD- group were not significantly different from either of the other two groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that PM performance may be a sensitive marker of cognitive dysfunction among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with a history of self-reported blast-related mTBI and comorbid PTSD. Reduced PM may account, in part, for complaints of cognitive difficulties in this Veteran cohort, even years post-injury. (JINS, 2018, 24, 324–334)
A reassessment of the taxonomic relationships of North American gigantopterids is presented in light of an examination of large populations of specimens housed in the US National Museum of Natural History. Variations in venation and subtle aspects of leaf shape facilitate refined understanding of the relationships and diversity of the North American gigantopterid species leading to an improved understanding of the taxonomic and biogeographic relationships of this group, which are found most abundantly in western equatorial Pangea and Cathaysia. Current literature suggests that there are eight North American genera, however, this study has revealed a morphological overlap of several previously defined genera, leading to the conclusion that Gigantopteridium encompasses the species previously treated as Cathaysiopteris yochelsonii as well as a new species, Gigantopteridium utebaturianum. The transfer of C. yochelsonii to Gigantopteridium yochelsonii suggests that Cathaysiopteris may represent a genus endemic to Cathaysia, limiting the biogeographical connection between the regions to Zeilleropteris, Gigantopteridium, Euparyphoselis, and Gigantonoclea.
Objectives: Prospective memory (PM) impairments are common following acquired brain injury (ABI). PM is the ability to keep a goal in mind for future action and interventions have the potential to increase independence. This review aimed to evaluate studies examining PM rehabilitation approaches in adults and children with ABI. Methods:Relevant literature was identified using PsycARTICLES (1894 to present), PsycINFO (1880 to present), the Cochrane Library (1972 to present), MEDLINE PubMed, reference lists from relevant journal articles, and searches of key journals. Literature searches were conducted using variants of the terms brain injury, stroke, encephalitis, meningitis, and tumor, combined with variants of the terms rehabilitation and prospective memory.Results: Of the 435 papers identified, 11 were included in the review. Findings demonstrated a variety of interventions to alleviate PM deficits, including compensatory strategies (e.g., external memory aids) that provide either content-specific or content-free cueing, and remediation strategies (e.g., meta-cognitive training programs) aimed at improving the self-monitoring of personal goals. Risk of bias for individual studies was considered and the strengths and limitations of each of the included studies and the review itself were discussed. Conclusions: Interventions used with adults can be effective; PM abilities can be improved by using simple reminder systems and performance can be generalized to facilitate everyday PM functioning. There is, however, a lack of research of PM interventions conducted with children with ABI, and pediatric interventions need to consider on-going cognitive maturation. (JINS, 2017, 23, 254–265)
Introductions of biocontrol beetles (tamarisk beetles) are causing dieback of exotic tamarisk in riparian zones across the western United States, yet factors that determine plant communities that follow tamarisk dieback are poorly understood. Tamarisk-dominated soils are generally higher in nutrients, organic matter, and salts than nearby soils, and these soil attributes might influence the trajectory of community change. To assess physical and chemical drivers of plant colonization after beetle-induced tamarisk dieback, we conducted separate germination and growth experiments using soil and litter collected beneath defoliated tamarisk trees. Focal species were two common native (red threeawn, sand dropseed) and two common invasive exotic plants (Russian knapweed, downy brome), planted alone and in combination. Nutrient, salinity, wood chip, and litter manipulations examined how tamarisk litter affects the growth of other species in a context of riparian zone management. Tamarisk litter, tamarisk litter leachate, and fertilization with inorganic nutrients increased growth in all species, but the effect was larger on the exotic plants. Salinity of 4 dS m−1 benefitted Russian knapweed, which also showed the largest positive responses to added nutrients. Litter and wood chips generally delayed and decreased germination; however, a thinner layer of wood chips increased growth slightly. Time to germination was lengthened by most treatments for natives, was not affected in exotic Russian knapweed, and was sometimes decreased in downy brome. Because natives showed only small positive responses to litter and fertilization and large negative responses to competition, Russian knapweed and downy brome are likely to perform better than these two native species following tamarisk dieback.
We investigate the physical conditions of the gas, atomic and molecular, in the filaments in the context of Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs) using the KOSMA-PDR mode of clumpy clouds. We also compare the [CII] vs. [NII] integrated intensity predictions in Abel et al. 2005 for HII regions and adjacent PDRs in the Galactic disk, and check for their applicability under the extreme physical conditions present in the GC. Our preliminary results show that observed integrated intensities are well reproduced by the PDR model. The gas is exposed to a relatively low Far-UV field between 102 – 103 Draine fields. The total volume hydrogen density is well constrained between 104 – 105 cm−3. The hydrogen ionization rate due to cosmic-rays varies between 10−15 and 4× 10−15 s−1, with the highest value ~ 10−14 s−1 found towards G0.07+0.04. Our results show that the line-of-sight contribution to the total distance of the filaments to the Arches Cluster is not negligible. The spatial distribution of the [CII]/[NII] ratio shows that the integrated intensity ratios are fairly homogeneously distributed for values below 10 in energy units. Calculations including variation on the [C/N] abundance ratio show that tight constraints on this ratio are needed to reproduce the observations.
We present an update on the Mopra Central Molecular Zone Carbon Monoxide (CO) survey, with data taken in 2016 extending the original 3.5° ≥ l ≥ 358.5°, +1.0° ≥ b ≥ -0.5° to 4.0° ≥ l ≥ 358.0°, +1.0° ≥ b ≥ -1.0°. Using the four simultaneously observed lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O Nyquist sampled at 0.6′ spatial and 0.1 km/s spectral resolution, we are building an optical-thickness-corrected three-dimensional model of the diffuse gas, and making cloud mass estimates. This data, as part of the Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey (Braiding et al. (2015), Burton et al. (2013)), is at the highest resolution available across such a widespread region, and includes the Sagittarius A, Sagittarius B2, Sagittarius C, and G1.3 cloud complexes, as well as Bania’s Clump 2.
An intervention study showed that promoting water consumption in schoolchildren prevented overweight, but a mechanism linking water consumption to overweight was not substantiated. We investigated whether increased water consumption replaced sugar-containing beverages and whether changes in water or sugar-containing beverages influenced body weight outcomes. In a secondary analysis of the intervention study in Germany, we analysed combined longitudinal data from the intervention and control groups. Body weight and height were measured and beverage consumption was self-reported by a 24-h recall questionnaire at the beginning and end of the school year 2006/2007. The effect of a change in water consumption on change in sugar-containing beverage (soft drinks and juices) consumption, change in BMI (kg/m2) and prevalence of overweight and obesity at follow-up was analysed using regression analyses. Of 3220 enroled children, 1987 children (mean age 8·3 (sd 0·7) years) from thirty-two schools were analysed. Increased water consumption by 1 glass/d was associated with a reduced consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 0·12 glasses/d (95 % CI −0·16, −0·08) but was not associated with changes in BMI (P=0·63). Increased consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 1 glass/d was associated with an increased BMI by 0·02 (95 % CI 0·00, 0·03) kg/m2 and increased prevalence of obesity (OR 1·22; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·44) but not with overweight (P=0·83). In conclusion, an increase in water consumption can replace sugar-containing beverages. As sugar-containing beverages were associated with weight gain, this replacement might explain the prevention of obesity through the promotion of water consumption.
Pain and delirium are commonly reported in older people with advanced cancer. However, assessing pain in this population is challenging, and there is currently no validated assessment tool for this task. The present retrospective cohort study was conducted to understand how healthcare workers (HCWs; nurses and physicians) determine that older cancer patients with delirium are in pain.
We reviewed the medical records of consecutive palliative care inpatients, 65 years of age and above (N = 113), in order to identify patient-based cues used by HCWs to make pain judgments and to examine how the cues differ by delirium subtype and outcome.
We found that HCWs routinely make judgments about pain in older patients with delirium using a repertoire of strategies that includes patient self-report and observations of spontaneous and evoked behavior. Using these strategies, HCWs judged pain to be highly prevalent in this inpatient palliative care setting.
Significance of results:
These novel findings will inform the development of valid and reliable tools to assess pain in older cancer patients with delirium.
Hyperiid amphipods are holoplanktonic marine crustaceans that are known as temporary symbionts of different groups of gelatinous zooplankton. The nature and dynamics of these associations are still poorly understood, particularly in deep waters. The mesopelagic and deep-living planktonic fauna off Monterey Bay, California (down to 4000 m) was surveyed using a remotely operated submersible (ROV) and blue-water diving (BWD) between September 2005 and January 2008. In this work we report our observations on a total of 51 symbiotic associations observed in situ (not from zooplankton samples), between hyperiid amphipods and various taxa of gelatinous zooplankton. We present the first information on the symbiotic relations of the hyperiid Vibilia caeca, and we provide data of 34 previously unknown symbiotic associations. The host range was expanded for several widely distributed hyperiid species. These findings suggest that the symbiotic associations between hyperiid amphipods and gelatinous zooplankton in deep waters deserve further study worldwide.
Eating whole grains (WG) is recommended for health, but multiple conflicting definitions exist for identifying whole grain (WG) products, limiting the ability of consumers and organizations to select such products. We investigated how five recommended WG criteria relate to healthfulness and price of grain products.
We categorized grain products by different WG criteria including: the industry-sponsored Whole Grain stamp (WG-Stamp); WG as the first ingredient (WG-first); WG as the first ingredient without added sugars (WG-first-no-added-sugars); the word ‘whole’ before any grain in the ingredients (‘whole’-anywhere); and a content of total carbohydrate to fibre of ≤10:1 (10:1-ratio). We investigated associations of each criterion with health-related characteristics including fibre, sugars, sodium, energy, trans-fats and price.
Two major grocery store chains.
Five hundred and forty-five grain products.
Each WG criterion identified products with higher fibre than products considered non-WG; the 10:1-ratio exhibited the largest differences (+3·15 g/serving, P < 0·0001). Products achieving the 10:1-ratio also contained lower sugar (−1·28 g/serving, P = 0·01), sodium (−15·4 mg/serving, P = 0·04) and likelihood of trans-fats (OR = 0·14, P < 0·0001), without energy differences. WG-first-no-added-sugars performed similarly, but identified many fewer products as WG and also not a lower likelihood of containing trans-fats. The WG-Stamp, WG-first and ‘whole’-anywhere criteria identified products with a lower likelihood of trans-fats, but also significantly more sugars and energy (P < 0·05 each). Products meeting the WG-Stamp or 10:1-ratio criterion were more expensive than products that did not (+$US 0·04/serving, P = 0·009 and +$US 0·05/serving, P = 0·003, respectively).
Among proposed WG criteria, the 10:1-ratio identified the most healthful WG products. Other criteria performed less well, including the industry-supported WG-Stamp which identified products with higher fibre and lower trans-fats, but also higher sugars and energy. These findings inform efforts by consumers, organizations and policy makers to identify healthful WG products.
Some epidemiological evidence suggests that diets high in omega 3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) may be beneficial for skeletal health. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if randomized controlled trials (RCTs) support a positive effect of n-3 FAs on osteoporosis. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases. We included RCTs with skeletal outcomes conducted in adults or children (> = 1 year old) using n-3 FA fortified foods, diets or supplements alone or in combination with other vitamins/minerals, versus placebo. Primary outcomes were incident fracture at any site and bone mineral density (BMD) in g/cm2. Secondary outcomes included bone formation or resorption markers and bone turnover regulators. A total of 10 RCTs met inclusion criteria. Effect sizes with 95 % confidence intervals were estimated to compare studies across various treatments and outcome measures. No pooled analysis was completed due to heterogeneity of studies and small sample sizes. No RCTs included fracture as an outcome. Four studies reported significant favorable effects of n-3 FA on BMD or bone turnover markers. Of these, three delivered n-3 FA in combination with high calcium foods or supplements. Five studies reported no differences in outcomes between n-3 FA intervention and control groups; one study included insufficient data for effect size estimation. Strong conclusions regarding n-3 FAs and bone disease are limited due to the small number and modest sample sizes of RCTs, however, it appears that any potential benefit of n-3 FA on skeletal health may be enhanced by concurrent administration of calcium.
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest nutritional assistance program addressing food insecurity in the United States. Due to the program's reach, SNAP has been called upon to address other nutrition-related challenges facing low-income Americans, including childhood obesity. This study considers the effect of SNAP participation on child weight outcomes after controlling for household financial stress, an important determinant of child overweight status that disproportionately affects low-income households. Using data from the Survey of Household Finances and Childhood Obesity and instrumental variable methods, we find that SNAP participation is negatively associated with obesity among eligible children.