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To characterize the risk of infection after MRSA decolonization with intranasal mupirocin.
Multicenter, retrospective cohort study.
Tertiary care neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) from 3 urban hospitals in the United States ranging in size from 45 to 100 beds.
MRSA-colonized neonates were identified from NICU admissions occurring from January 2007 to December 2014, during which a targeted decolonization strategy was used for MRSA control. In 2 time-to-event analyses, MRSA-colonized neonates were observed from the date of the first MRSA-positive surveillance screen until (1) the first occurrence of novel gram-positive cocci in sterile culture or discharge or (2) the first occurrence of novel gram-negative bacilli in sterile culture or discharge. Mupirocin exposure was treated as time varying.
A total of 522 MRSA-colonized neonates were identified from 16,144 neonates admitted to site NICUs. Of the MRSA-colonized neonates, 384 (74%) received mupirocin. Average time from positive culture to mupirocin treatment was 3.5 days (standard deviation, 7.2 days). The adjusted hazard of gram-positive cocci infection was 64% lower among mupirocin-exposed versus mupirocin-unexposed neonates (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17–0.76), whereas the adjusted hazard ratio of gram-negative bacilli infection comparing mupirocin-exposed and -unexposed neonates was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.42–2.62).
In this multicentered cohort of MRSA-colonized neonates, mupirocin-based decolonization treatment appeared to decrease the risk of infection with select gram-positive organisms as intended, and the treatment was not significantly associated with risk of subsequent infections with organisms not covered by mupirocin’s spectrum of activity.
Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections in neonates.
To examine the impact of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) decolonization on the incidence of MSSA infection and to measure the prevalence of mupirocin resistance.
We retrospectively identified neonates admitted to a tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from April 1, 2011, through September 30, 2014. We compared rates of MSSA-positive cultures and infections before and after implementation of an active surveillance culture and decolonization intervention for MSSA-colonized neonates. We used 2 measurements to identify the primary outcome, NICU-attributable MSSA: (1) any culture sent during routine clinical care that grew MSSA and (2) any culture that grew MSSA and met criteria of the National Healthcare Safety Network’s healthcare-associated infection surveillance definitions. S. aureus isolates were tested for mupirocin susceptibility. We estimated incidence rate ratios using interrupted time-series models.
Before and after the intervention, 1,523 neonates (29,220 patient-days) and 1,195 neonates (22,045 patient-days) were admitted to the NICU, respectively. There was an immediate reduction in the mean quarterly incidence rate of NICU-attributable MSSA-positive clinical cultures of 64% (incidence rate ratio, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.19–0.70]) after implementation of the intervention, and MSSA-positive culture rates continued to decrease by 21% per quarter (incidence rate ratio, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.74–0.84]). MSSA infections also decreased by 73% immediately following the intervention implementation (incidence rate ratio, 0.27 [95% CI, 0.10–0.79]). No mupirocin resistance was detected.
Active surveillance cultures and decolonization may be effective in decreasing S. aureus infections in NICUs.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(4):381–387