Geomorphic evidence of past glaciation, such as U-shaped valleys, aretes, glacial lakes, and moraines, is preserved in the highland surrounding Cerro Chirripó in the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. Previous work to establish a glacial chronology has focused on relative age dating of moraines and on radiocarbon dating of basal lake sediments to infer the timing of deglaciation. We used cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating to constrain the ages of moraines within two formerly glaciated valleys, the Morrenas and Talari valleys. Forty-nine boulder samples were processed and measured from four moraine complexes in the Morrenas Valley and two moraine complexes in the Talari Valley. The exposure ages of these samples indicate a major glacial event occurred in this area from ~25 to 23 ka, broadly synchronous with the global last glacial maximum. Our results also indicate periods of glacial retreats and standstills from the deglacial period to the Early Holocene (~16–10 ka) before the complete disappearance of glaciers in this highland. These findings provide important insights into the glacial chronology and paleoclimate of tropical America.