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To determine whether residence in a US Department of Agriculture-designated food desert is associated with perceived access to healthy foods, grocery shopping behaviours, diet and BMI among a national sample of primary food shoppers.
Data for the present study came from a self-administered cross-sectional survey administered in 2015. Residential addresses of respondents were geocoded to determine whether their census tract of residence was a designated food desert or not. Inverse probability of treatment-weighted regression was used to assess whether residence in a food desert was associated with dependent variables of interest.
Of 4942 adult survey respondents, residential addresses of 75·0 % (n 3705) primary food shoppers were included in the analysis.
Residence in a food desert (11·1 %, n 411) was not significantly associated with perceived access to healthy foods, most grocery shopping behaviours or dietary behaviour, but was significantly associated with primarily shopping at a superstore or supercentre v. a large grocery store (OR = 1·32; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·71; P = 0·03) and higher BMI (b = 1·14; 95 % CI 0·36, 1·93; P = 0·004).
Results suggest that food desert residents shop at different food stores and have higher BMI than non-food desert residents.
To investigate the potential dietary impact of the opening of new retailers of healthy foods.
Systematic review of the peer-reviewed research literature.
References published before November 2015 were retrieved from MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases using keyword searches.
The outcome of the review was change in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults.
Of 3514 references retrieved, ninety-two articles were reviewed in full text, and twenty-three articles representing fifteen studies were included. Studies used post-test only (n 4), repeated cross-sectional (n 4) and repeated measures designs (n 7) to evaluate the dietary impact of supermarket (n 7), farmers’ market (n 4), produce stand (n 2) or mobile market (n 2) openings. Evidence of increased fruit and vegetable consumption was most consistent among adults who began shopping at the new retailer. Three of four repeated measures studies found modest, albeit not always statistically significant, increases in fruit and vegetable consumption (range 0·23–0·54 servings/d) at 6–12 months after baseline. Dietary change among residents of the broader community where the new retailer opened was less consistent.
The methodological quality of studies, including research designs, sampling methods, follow-up intervals and outcome measures, ranged widely. Future research should align methodologically with previous work to facilitate meta-analytic synthesis of results. Opening a new retailer may result in modest short-term increases in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults who choose to shop there, but the potential longer-term dietary impact on customers and its impact on the broader community remain unclear.
Evidence suggests a reversal of the normal left-lateralised response to speech in schizophrenia.
To test the brain's response to emotional prosody in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
BOLD contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging of subjects while they passively listened or attended to sentences that differed in emotional prosody.
Patients with schizophrenia exhibited normal right-lateralisation of the passive response to ‘pure’ emotional prosody and relative left-lateralisation of the response to unfiltered emotional prosody. When attending to emotional prosody, patients with schizophrenia activated the left insula more than healthy controls. When listening passively, patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated less activation of the bilateral superior temporal gyri in response to pure emotional prosody, and greater activation of the left superior temporal gyrus in response to unfiltered emotional prosody. In both passive experiments, the patient groups activated different lateral temporal lobe regions.
Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may display some left-lateralisation of the normal right-lateralised temporal lobe response to emotional prosody.
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