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We estimate the ecosystem service value of water supplied by the San Bernardino National Forest in Southern California under climate change projections through the 21st century. We couple water flow projections from a dynamic vegetation model with an economic demand model for residential water originating from the San Bernardino National Forest. Application of the method demonstrates how estimates of consumer welfare changes due to variation in water supply from public lands in Southern California can inform policy and land management decisions. Results suggest variations in welfare changes over time due to alterations in the projected water supply surpluses, shifting demand limited by water supply shortages or surpluses, and price increases. Results are sensitive to future climate projections—in some cases large decreases in welfare due to supply shortages—and to assumptions about the demand model.
To assess the effects of aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg (AOM 400) on clinical symptoms and global improvement in schizophrenia after switching from an oral antipsychotic.
In a multicenter, open-label, mirror-image, naturalistic study in patients with schizophrenia (>1 year, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] criteria), changes in efficacy measures were assessed during prospective treatment (6 months) with AOM 400 after switching from standard-of-care oral antipsychotics. During prospective treatment, patients were cross-titrated to oral aripiprazole monotherapy (1–4) weeks followed by open-label AOM 400 (24 weeks). Mean change from baseline of the open-label AOM 400 phase in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores (total, positive and negative subscales) and Clinical Global Impression–Severity (CGI-S) scores; mean CGI–Improvement (CGI-I) score; and proportion of responders (≥30% decrease from baseline in PANSS total score or CGI-I score of 1 [very much improved] or 2 [much improved]) were assessed.
PANSS and CGI-S scores improved from baseline (P<0.0001) and CGI-I demonstrated improvement at all time points. By the end of the study, 49.0% of patients were PANSS or CGI-I responders.
In a community setting, patients with schizophrenia who were stabilized at baseline and switched to AOM 400 from oral antipsychotics showed clear improvements in clinical symptoms.
Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotics are treatment alternatives to oral agents.
To assess the efficacy of aripiprazole once-monthly compared with oral aripiprazole for maintenance treatment of schizophrenia.
A 38-week, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study; randomisation (2:2:1) to aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg, oral aripiprazole (10–30 mg/day) or aripiprazole once-monthly 50mg (a dose below the therapeutic threshold for assay sensitivity). (Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00706654.)
A total of 1118 patients were screened, and 662 responders to oral aripiprazole were randomised. Kaplan–Meier estimated impending relapse rates at week 26 were 7.12% for aripiprazole once-monthly 400mg and 7.76% for oral aripiprazole. This difference (−0.64%, 95% CI −5.26 to 3.99) excluded the predefined non-inferiority margin of 11.5%. Treatments were superior to aripiprazole once-monthly 50mg (21.80%, P⩽0.001).
Aripiprazole once-monthly 400mg was non-inferior to oral aripiprazole, and the reduction in Kaplan–Meier estimated impending relapse rate at week 26 was statistically significant v. aripiprazole once-monthly 50 mg.
Well-tolerated and effective therapies for bipolar mania are required.
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole as acute and maintenance of effect therapy in patients with bipolar I disorder experiencing manic or mixed episodes.
Patients were randomised to double-blind aripiprazole (15 or 30 mg/day; n=167) placebo (n=153) or haloperidol (5–15 mg/day, n=165) for 3 weeks (trial registration NCT00097266). Aripiprazole- and haloperidol-treated patients remained on masked treatment for 9 additional weeks.
Mean change in Young Mania Rating Scale Total score (primary end-point) at week 3 was significantly greater with aripiprazole (–12.0; P<0.05) and haloperidol (–12.8; P<0.01) than with placebo (–9.7). Improvements were maintained to week 12 for aripiprazole (–17.2) and haloperidol (–17.8). Aripiprazole was well tolerated. Extrapyramidal adverse events were more frequent with haloperidol than aripiprazole (53.3% v. 23.5%).
Clinical improvements with aripiprazole were sustained to week 12. Aripiprazole was generally well tolerated.
Despite several treatment options, adherence to therapy is poor in patients with bipolar disorder.
A double-blind, controlled comparison of aripiprazole and haloperidol in patients with bipolar I disorder experiencing acute manic or mixed episodes.
Patients (n=347) were randomised to receive aripiprazole or haloperidol in this 12-week, multicentre study. The primary outcome measure was the number of patients in response (550% improvement from baseline in Young Mania Rating Scale score) and receiving therapy at week 12.
At week 12, significantly more patients taking aripiprazole (49. 7%) were in response and receiving therapy compared with those taking haloperidol (28. 4%; P<0. 001). Continuation rates differed markedly between treatments (week 12: aripiprazole, 50. 9%; haloperidol, 29. 1%). Extrapyramidal adverse events were more frequent with haloperidol than aripiprazole (62. 7% v. 24. 0%).
Aripiprazole showed superior levels of response and tolerability to haloperidol in the treatment of an acute manic episode for up to 12 weeks.
The effect of TiN Anti-Reflective Coating (ARC) layer capping of metal, in a multilevel interconnect system, on the reliability of the tungsten (W) plug has been investigated. EM study on Kelvin via showed that the thin TiN ARC Kelvin via lifetime exhibited a reduction of one order of magnitude compared to that of the thicker ARC thickness (1000Å) when they were stressed in a certain direction. A new testing technique, used to investigate the effect of ARC thickness on the W-plug electromigration (EM) performance, is discussed. The simulation results of current distribution confirmed the proposed failure model of EM performance of W-plug via with different ARC thickness.
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