Procedures and equipment used in the University of Wisconsin laboratory have been described in previous date lists (Steventon & Kutzbach 1983; 1984). Except as otherwise indicated, wood, charcoal, and peat samples are pretreated with dilute NaOH-Na4P2O7 and dilute H3PO4 before conversion to the counting gas methane; when noted, marls and lake cores are treated with acid only. Very calcareous materials are treated with HCl instead of H3PO4. Pretreatment of bone varies with the condition of the bone sample; solid bone with little deterioration is first cleaned manually and ultrasonically. The bone is treated with 8% HCl for 15 minutes, then dilute NaOH-Na4P2O7 for 3 hours at room temperature, washed until neutral, and the collagen extracted according to Longin (1971). Charred bone is treated with dilute HCl, NaOH-Na4P2O7, and then dilute HCl again.