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Attachment dimensions refer to how interpersonal emotion regulation strategies are utilised and have a profound impact in adulthood. Its measurement has attracted a large amount of research attention. The Experiences in Close Relationships — Revised (ECR-R) Questionnaire is one of the most widely used and researched self-report questionnaires to measure romantic attachment anxiety and avoidance in multiple language groups, despite inconsistent evidence regarding its factorial structure. The 20-item Experiences in Close Relationships — Revised — General Short Form (ECR-R-GSF) was developed based on the ECR-R to measure attachment experiences in all relationships (not just romantic ones) in an English-speaking sample. However, no short form of the ECR-R is available for the Chinese population. In order to cross-validate the first Chinese version of the ECR-R-GSF, specifically the proposed two-factor structure, against the English version, an Australian university student sample (n = 426) and a Chinese university student sample from China (n = 626) were recruited. The Anxiety and Avoidance scales were found to have good internal reliability in both samples. However, the proposed two-factor model only provided an acceptable fit even after adding modifications in the Australian sample, and the fit was not satisfactory in the Chinese sample. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that partial metric but not scalar invariance was achieved across cultures. Implications for relationship and cross-cultural research and practice were discussed.
To describe the transmission dynamics of the emergence and persistence of vanA vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) in an intensive care unit (ICU) using whole-genome sequencing of patient and environmental isolates.
Retrospective cohort study.
ICU in a tertiary referral center.
Patients admitted to the ICU over an 11-month period.
VanA VRE isolated from patients (n=31) were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Environmental samples from bed spaces, equipment, and waste rooms were collected. All vanA VRE-positive environmental samples (n=14) were also sequenced. Data were collected regarding patient ward and bed movements.
The 31 patient vanA VRE isolates were from screening (n=19), urine (n=4), bloodstream (n=3), skin/wound (n=3), and intra-abdominal (n=2) sources. The phylogeny from sequencing data confirmed several VRE clusters, with 1 group accounting for 38 of 45 isolates (84%). Within this cluster, cross-transmission was extensive and complex across the ICU. Directionality indicated that colonized patients contaminated environmental sites. Similarly, environmental sources not only led to patient colonization but also to infection. Notably, shared equipment acted as a conduit for transmission between different ICU areas. Infected patients, however, were not linked to further VRE transmission.
Genomic sequencing confirmed a predominantly clonal outbreak of VRE with complex transmission dynamics. The environmental reservoir, particularly from shared equipment, played a key role in ongoing VRE spread. This study provides evidence to support the use of multifaceted strategies, with an emphasis on measures to reduce bacterial burden in the environment, for successful VRE control.
The neuropsychological origins of negative syndrome of schizophrenia remain elusive. Evidence from behavioural studies, which utilised emotion-inducing pictures to elicit motivated behaviour generally reported that that schizophrenia patients experienced similar affective experience as healthy individuals but failed to translate emotional salience to motivated behaviour, a phenomenon called emotion–behaviour decoupling. However, a few studies have examined emotion–behaviour decoupling in non-psychotic high-risk populations, who are relatively unaffected by medication effects.
In this study, we examined the nature and extent of emotion–behaviour decoupling in in three independent samples (65 schizophrenia patients v. 63 controls; 40 unaffected relatives v. 45 controls; and 32 individuals with social anhedonia v. 32 controls). We administered an experimental task to examine their affective experience and its coupling with behaviour, using emotion-inducing slides, and allowed participants to alter stimulus exposure using button-pressing to seek pleasure or avoid aversion.
Schizophrenia patients reported similar affective experiences as their controls, while their unaffected relatives and individuals with high levels of social anhedonia exhibited attenuated affective experiences, in particular in the arousal aspect. Compared with their respective control groups, all of the three groups showed emotion–behaviour decoupling.
Our findings support that both genetically and behaviourally high-risk groups exhibit emotion–behaviour decoupling. The familial association apparently supports its role as a putative trait marker for schizophrenia.
People with pancreatic cancer have poor survival, and management is challenging. Pancreatic cancer patients' perceptions of their care coordination and its association with their outcomes have not been well-studied. Our objective was to determine if perception of care coordination is associated with patient-reported outcomes or survival.
People with pancreatic cancer who were 1–8 months postdiagnosis (52 with completed resection and 58 with no resection) completed a patient-reported questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of care coordination, quality of life, anxiety, and depression using validated instruments. Mean scores for 15 care-coordination items were calculated and then ranked from highest (best experience) to lowest (worst experience). Associations between care-coordination scores (including communication and navigation domains) and patient-reported outcomes and survival were investigated using general linear regression and Cox regression, respectively. All analyses were stratified by whether or not the tumor had been resected.
In both groups, the highest-ranked care-coordination items were: knowing who was responsible for coordinating care, health professionals being informed about their history, and waiting times. The worst-ranked items related to: how often patients were asked about visits with other health professionals and how well they and their family were coping, knowing the symptoms they should monitor, having sufficient emotional help from staff, and access to additional specialist services. For people who had a resection, better communication and navigation scores were significantly associated with higher quality of life and less anxiety and depression. However, these associations were not statistically significant for those with no resection. Perception of cancer care coordination was not associated with survival in either group.
Significance of results:
Our results suggest that, while many core clinical aspects of care are perceived to be done well for pancreatic cancer patients, improvements in emotional support, referral to specialist services, and self-management education may improve patient-reported outcomes.
Ketamine has emerged as a novel therapeutic agent for major depressive episodes, spurring interest in its potential to augment electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
We sought to update our preliminary systematic review and meta-analysis, focusing on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving an index course of ECT, and testing the hypothesis that lack of efficacy is due to barbiturate anaesthetic co-administration.
We searched EMBASE, CENTRAL and Medline to identify RCTs examining the efficacy of ketamine during a course of ECT. Data were synthesised from ten trials (ketamine group n = 333, comparator group n = 269) using pooled random effects models.
Electroconvulsive therapy with ketamine was not associated with greater improvements in depressive symptoms or higher rates of clinical response or remission, nor did it result in pro-cognitive effects. This held true when limiting analysis to trials without barbiturate anaesthetic co-administration. Increased rates of confusion were reported.
Overall, our analyses do not support using ketamine over other induction agents in ECT.
Given the importance of voice in ethical leadership theory, we analyze the relationship of ethical leadership to employee voice and the relationship of voice to exit intentions. Building on the theory of work engagement, we further hypothesize that cognitive engagement mediates these proposed relationships. To test these propositions, we conduct a field study to relate ethical leadership of supervisors, measured at time 1, to employees’ cognitive job engagement, measured at time 2. The analyses show that the relationship between these variables can account for supervisory ethical leadership’s association with employee voice and exit intentions. In a supplementary study using a different sample, we find that supervisory ethical leadership is related to exit intentions through voice. We discuss how these findings contribute to the literature on ethical leadership, employee voice, and exit.
To use whole genome sequencing to describe the likely origin of an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a neonatal unit.
The neonatal intensive care unit service of a major obstetric tertiary referral center.
Infants admitted to the neonatal unit who developed P. aeruginosa colonization or infection.
We undertook whole genome sequencing of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from colonized infants and from the neonatal unit environment.
Eighteen infants were colonized with P. aeruginosa. Isolates from 12 infants and 7 environmental samples were sequenced. All but one of the clinical isolates clustered in ST253 and no differences were detected between unmapped reads. The environmental isolates revealed a variety of sequence types, indicating a large diverse bioburden within the unit, which was subsequently confirmed via enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus–polymerase chain reaction typing of post-outbreak isolates. One environmental isolate, obtained from a sink in the unit, clustered within ST253 and differed from the outbreak strain by 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms only. This information allowed us to focus infection control activities on this sink.
Whole genome sequencing can provide detailed information in a clinically relevant time frame to aid management of outbreaks in critical patient management areas. The superior discriminatory power of this method makes it a powerful tool in infection control.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(9):1058–1064
Objectives: The Griffith Empathy Measure (GEM) is a self-report measure of empathy. The current study aimed to explore the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the GEM. It also aimed to compare individuals with and without schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) features on various components of empathy.
Methods: 420 college students from Beijing and 526 college students from Guangzhou completed a set of questionnaires that measured empathy and schizotypal personality disorder traits. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used to evaluate the internal consistency of the GEM. Construct validity was evaluated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). Construct validity was also examined by looking at the relationship between the GEM and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Finally, the sensitivity of the GEM was evaluated by comparing the total and factor GEM scores between individuals with and without SPD traits.
Results: The Chinese GEM showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83). Results of an exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-factor model consisting of cognitive, affective and behavioural empathy components. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three-factor model, as well as the two-factor model found in the English version, were both acceptable. Construct validity (specifically convergent validity) was also corroborated by significant correlations between the IRI subscales and GEM (personal distress: r = .09, p > .05; perspective taking: r = .34, p < .01; fantasy: r = .44, p < .01; empathic concern: r = .51, p < .01). Individuals with SPD traits showed lower scores on the GEM than individuals without SPD traits (t(1,250) = −1.99, p = .05), thus confirming discriminative validity.
Conclusions: These preliminary findings suggest that the Chinese version of the GEM demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency and construct validity. In addition, the findings suggest that the GEM is culturally appropriate and researchers can use it to study empathy in healthy and clinical Chinese participants.
This paper investigates how culture affects people’s attitudes towards directors’ duties in the People’s Republic of China by surveying a sample of Chinese business executives. If cultural practices lead people to behave differently from what the law prescribes, it is a serious regulatory oversight. Our results suggest that Chinese cultural values do matter when it comes to the perception of breaches of directors’ duties. Specifically, we find that respondents who identify with moral-discipline related traditional Chinese values are more lenient to the chairman breaching his director's duties, whereas respondents who subscribe to modern Chinese values are less receptive to the director failing to report the chairman’s contravention of his director’s duties. These results suggest that it is imperative for China’s law-makers to rethink their approach to regulating directors’ duties instead of the wholesale transplantation of laws from Western countries.
An enormous effort is underway worldwide to attempt to detect gravitational waves. If successful, this will open a new frontier in astronomy. An essential portion of this effort is being carried out in Australia by the Australian Consortium for Interferometric Gravitational Astronomy (ACIGA), with research teams working at the Australia National University, University of Western Australia, and University of Adelaide involving scientists and students representing many more institutions and nations. ACIGA is developing ultrastable high-power continuous-wave lasers for the next generation interferometric gravity wave detectors; researching the problems associated with high optical power in resonant cavities; opening frontiers in advanced interferometry configurations, quantum optics, and signal extraction; and is the world's leader in high-performance vibration isolation and suspension design. ACIGA has also been active in theoretical research and modelling of potential astronomical gravitational wave sources, and in developing data analysis detection algorithms. ACIGA has opened a research facility north of Perth, Western Australia, which will be the culmination of these efforts. This paper briefly reviews ACIGA's research activities and the prospects for gravitational wave astronomy in the southern hemisphere.
The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is applied to a constrained linear least-squares problem, where the objective function is a sum of two least-squares terms and there are box constraints. The original problem is decomposed into two easier least-squares subproblems at each iteration, and to speed up the inner iteration we linearize the relevant subproblem whenever it has no known closed-form solution. We prove the convergence of the resulting algorithm, and apply it to solve some image deblurring problems. Its efficiency is demonstrated, in comparison with Newton-type methods.
Many developing and developed countries around the world face the challenge of meeting their growing infrastructure needs with limited fiscal resources. It is estimated that worldwide population will increase by approximately one billion between 2005 and 2015 (Sachs 2005). Large-scale development and maintenance of infrastructure will be needed to accommodate the basic needs of these new inhabitants, as well as those of the existing population. However, many developing countries receive less financial support from the World Bank in recent years than they did during the 1960s and 1970s for infrastructure development as a result of the multilateral agencies' shift in focus from infrastructure development to social program development during the 1980s (Harris 2003). At the same time, developed nations such as the United States have found it difficult to raise taxes to maintain their existing infrastructure systems, especially amid the economic crisis of the recent 2000s. Years of delayed or cancelled infrastructure maintenance projects led the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) to give a grade “D” to America's existing infrastructure in 2009 (ASCE 2009). It is estimated that $2.2 trillion of investment will be needed for the next 5 years to fix America's infrastructure (ASCE 2009).
In response to these challenges, some governments have invited private investors to participate in infrastructure development through schemes such as Public–Private Partnership (PPPs), Private Finance Initiative (PFI), and Build–Operate–Transfer (BOT) (Clarke 2000; Gerrard 2001; Lonsdale 2005).
ZnO thin films are of interest for an array of applications, including: light emitters, photovoltaics, sensors and transparent contacts, among others. Production routes for ZnO include sputtering, MBE and MOCVD. This paper focuses on our efforts to produce a large scale MOCVD thin film production tool and the results obtained from the reactor. Specifically, we have constructed a tool with a 16” wafer carrier that uniformly deposits ZnO films on 38×2” wafers simultaneously. The reactor operates at low pressure (<0.1 Atmosphere) and through 700°C. High quality, uniform films have been deposited on an array of substrates. Al-doped films exhibited resisitivities in the 1×10-3 ohm-cm range and transmissivity greater than 80%. Film morphology and crystallinity are a function of process parameters. The large area oxide MOCVD reactor design challenges and results are summarized. Tool performance and ZnO thin film quality are reviewed, as well as preliminary ZnO contact performance on GaN LEDs.
This paper concerns the Monte Carlo method in pricing American-style options under the general class of exponential Lévy models. Traditionally, one must store all the intermediate asset prices so that they can be used for the backward pricing in the least squares algorithm. Therefore the storage requirement grows like , where m is the number of time steps and n is the number of simulated paths. In this paper, we propose a simulation method where the storage requirement is only . The total computational cost is less than twice that of the traditional method. For machines with limited memory, one can now enlarge m and n to improve the accuracy in pricing the options. In numerical experiments, we illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of our method by pricing American options where the log-prices of the underlying assets follow typical Lévy processes such as Brownian motion, lognormal jump-diffusion process, and variance gamma process.
The aim of this study was to explore multitasking skills in a Chinese
sample of 22 children with attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD) compared with 22 healthy controls matched by gender, age, and IQ.
All of the participants completed the children's version of the Six
Elements Test (C-SET) and neuropsychological tests that captured specific
domains of attention, memory, and executive function. Children with ADHD
performed significantly worse than the healthy controls in all domains
except the number of rules broken in the C-SET. The majority of the C-SET
domain scores correlated significantly with measures of executive
function. The ADHD group also demonstrated deficits in various
neurocognitive test performances compared with the healthy group. This
preliminary study suggests that the C-SET is sensitive to multitasking
behavior in Chinese children with ADHD. The main impairments of
multitasking behavior in this clinical group involve the inhibition of
goal-directed planning, flexible strategy generation, and self-monitoring.
(JINS, 2006, 12, 575–579.)
Schizophrenia is characterized by profound disturbances in cognition,
emotion, and social functioning. Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) is
the important enzyme for the metabolism of monoamines, which play
important part in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. COMT exists in high
and low activity forms. The low activity form was found to be an amino
acid substitution (Val-108-Met), which reduces the thermostability of the
enzyme. This genetic polymorphism has been reported to be associated with
schizophrenia and its associated clinical features (Li
et al., 1996).
Those who would like to explore more on the issue, apart from looking at the references of each article, can find more information and analysis from these items supplied by authors of the articles, which are arranged by four parts: general, general-Asia, country-specific and statistics.
The latest period of expansion in the international economy has been characterised by the liberalisation of capital movements, the deregulation of major financial markets and the spread of neo-liberal beliefs in the merits of open and competitive trade, the disadvantages of big government and protectionist policies (Hirst, 1997). The rapid advancement of information and communication technology and the growth of knowledge-based economy have led to the gradual replacement of the conventional resource-based economies. ‘A techno-economic paradigm of information and communications technology and the knowledge-based economy has created a new knowledge-elite class that favours free markets in this post-industrial society, characterized by globalization, decentralization, deregulation and privatization’ (Low, 2003: 30–31).
Hong Kong has a liberal economy, and its welfare regime relies, first, on income through employment and, second, on support provided by family and community members. Although the government has strategically invested in certain social services, generally speaking, its aid is intended to be a secondary, if not the last resort. This system was effective when Hong Kong benefited from globalisation, enjoyed virtually full employment in the decades preceding the mid-1990s. However, the changes in capital flow and increasing capital relocation to Mainland China have had a negative impact on employment. As a result, the current welfare regime is unsustainable. The neo-liberal ideologies adopted by the government have only led to further social polarisation and instability. It is time for an approach that combines balanced development with broader social support.