To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have been described in
neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with streptococcal infections. It
is proposed that antibodies raised against streptococcal proteins
cross-react with neuronal proteins (antigens) in the brain, particularly
in the basal ganglia, which is a brain region implicated in OCD
To test the hypothesis that post-streptococcal autoimmunity, directed
against neuronal antigens, may contribute to the pathogenesis of OCD in
Ninety-six participants with OCD were tested for the presence of
anti-streptolysin-O titres (ASOT) and the presence of anti-basal ganglia
antibodies (ABGA) in a cross-sectional study. The ABGA were tested for
with western blots using three recombinant antigens; aldolase C, enolase
and pyruvate kinase. The findings were compared with those in a control
group of individuals with depression (n = 33) and
schizophrenia (n = 17).
Positivity for ABGA was observed in 19/96 (19.8%) participants with OCD
compared with 2/50 (4%) of controls (Fisher's exact test
P = 0.012). The majority of positive OCD sera (13/19)
had antibodies against the enolase antigen. No clinical variables were
associated with ABGA positivity. Positivity for ASOT was not associated
with ABGA positivity nor found at an increased incidence in participants
with OCD compared with controls.
These findings support the hypothesis that central nervous system
autoimmunity may have an aetiological role in some adults with OCD.
Further study is required to examine whether the antibodies concerned are
pathogenic and whether exposure to streptococcal infection in vulnerable
individuals is a risk factor for the development of OCD.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.