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Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty is the treatment of choice for patients with moderate to severe pulmonary valve stenosis.
An observational retrospective cross-sectional study including neonates, small infants, and children who underwent balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty in the period from 2007 to 2016 in the cardiac catheterisation unit of the paediatric cardiology department in Cairo University. Multivariable models were built to report the predictors of the outcome of balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty and its complications.
A total of 1200 patients were included in the study and divided according to age into 3 groups: neonates and early infants (n = 282), infants (n = 362), and children (n = 556). Procedural success, defined as a drop pressure gradient across the pulmonary valve to less than or equal to 50% of the baseline measurements, was achieved in 82.7% of the patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that only infundibular pulmonary stenosis (p value 0.032), supravalvular in association with valvular pulmonary stenosis (p value <0.001), and pulmonary valve diameter by angiogram (p value <0.001) were significant predictors of success. The presence of supravalvular in association with valvular pulmonary stenosis (p value <0.001) was associated with a lower weight (p value 0.007) and higher right ventricular pressure before the intervention (p value <0.001), and a minor immediate drop in the pressure gradient post-intervention (p value <0.001) was found to be the most significant predictor of the occurrence of complications.
The absence of infundibular and supravalvular stenosis and a large pulmonary valve diameter were the most significant predictors of success.
To investigate the modalities of tumour bed (TB) localisation of target volume delineation [clinically computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) compared with surgical clips-guided] and the impact of their differences in delineated TB volumes.
Material and methods
In total, 27 patients who underwent oncoplastic breast conservative surgery with surgical clips insertion (at least three) were included. CT and US imaging for TB localisation were done 3–4 weeks post-operatively in the same treatment position. TB was delineated four times, guided by surgical clips, clinical data, CT (seroma) and US. A plan was done for each TB delineated. The four delineated volumes were compared regarding the volumetric differences, the geographical miss index (GMI) and the overlap index.
Comparing the four modalities, median TB volume was for clinical (60.7), CT (60.8) and US (49.3) cm3, in comparison with 59.7 cm3 for clips, p=0.05. Median of GMI (represented the tissue at risk of recurrence and not had been treated) was for clinical (61.8), CT (45) and US (62.4)%, with significant difference of p=0.02. Median of normal tissue index (normal tissue has been included unnecessarily) was for clinical (59.5), CT (49.6) and US (62.3)%, p=0.17. Overlap index with clips-guided was for clinical (0.36), CT (0.42) and US (0.35) with significance of p=0.04. Median superior/inferior direction was 0.72, −0.03 and −0.2 cm for clinical, CT and US, respectively, with significant value of p=0.02, whereas the anterior–posterior was −0.07, −0.15 and −0.09 cm, p-value=0.45 and the medio–lateral was 0.4, −0.13 and 0.09 cm, p=0.60.
Significant differences in shifts and indices were detected between each of modalities compared with surgical clips. Thus, in the setting of oncoplastic breast surgery, surgical clips should be routinely used for TB localisation. In view of the larger volumes of breast tissue excised and the extensive remodelling that are inherent to oncoplastic procedures, the concept of TB boost irradiation should be re-challenged.
When patients feel spiritually supported by staff, we find increased use of hospice and reduced use of aggressive treatments at end of life, yet substantial barriers to staff spiritual care provision still exist. We aimed to study these barriers in a new cultural context and analyzed a new subgroup with “unrealized potential” for improved spiritual care provision: those who are positively inclined toward spiritual care yet do not themselves provide it.
We distributed the Religion and Spirituality in Cancer Care Study via the Middle East Cancer Consortium to physicians and nurses caring for advanced cancer patients. Survey items included how often spiritual care should be provided, how often respondents themselves provide it, and perceived barriers to spiritual care provision.
We had 770 respondents (40% physicians, 60% nurses) from 14 Middle Eastern countries. The results showed that 82% of respondents think staff should provide spiritual care at least occasionally, but 44% provide spiritual care less often than they think they should. In multivariable analysis of respondents who valued spiritual care yet did not themselves provide it to their most recent patients, predictors included low personal sense of being spiritual (p < 0.001) and not having received training (p = 0.02; only 22% received training). How “developed” a country is negatively predicted spiritual care provision (p < 0.001). Self-perceived barriers were quite similar across cultures.
Significance of results
Despite relatively high levels of spiritual care provision, we see a gap between desirability and actual provision. Seeing oneself as not spiritual or only slightly spiritual is a key factor demonstrably associated with not providing spiritual care. Efforts to increase spiritual care provision should target those in favor of spiritual care provision, promoting training that helps participants consider their own spirituality and the role that it plays in their personal and professional lives.