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Choices between options represented in a multidimensional space, in which each dimension signifies a distinct attribute describing the objects, are presumably guided by the principle of value maximization. However, the current study assumes that in a real-world setting, those who are able to imagine things that do not actually exist could modify the multidimensional space by self-generating an unoffered but fictional dimension. We define the utility (Uv) assigned by the decision makers to the options on the offered/given dimension as value (v[x]) and the utility (Uw) on the self-generated/fictional dimension as worth (w[xc]). Our series of experiments demonstrated that an option with a greater value established strictly on that given set of dimensions might not necessarily be chosen (which contradicted the principle of value maximization). Choosing an option with less value (i.e. giving away the bigger pear) behavior can be described and explained by the “worth-based choice” approach, as people behave to select the option with the highest worth rather than that with the highest value. We are optimistic that the resulting findings will facilitate our understanding of the beauty of such a “one step further” choice and assist us in understanding the following: the ability to further generate a fictional dimension and to assign a delayed utility (worth) to the options on the fictional dimension, and to make a worth-based choice, which could eventually be taken as the operational definition to measure the degree of “fiction-generating ability”, as proposed by Harari (2014).
Clozapine treatment increases the risk of agranulocytosis, but findings on the epidemiology of agranulocytosis have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis examined the prevalence of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients.
A literature search in the international (PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) and Chinese (WanFang, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Sinomed) databases was conducted. Prevalence estimates of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients were synthesized with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program using the random-effects model.
Thirty-six studies with 260 948 clozapine-treated patients published between 1984 and 2018 were included in the meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of agranulocytosis and death caused by agranulocytosis were 0.4% (95% CI 0.3–0.6%) and 0.05% (95% CI 0.03–0.09%), respectively. The prevalence of agranulocytosis was moderated by sample size, study quality, year of publication, and that of data collection.
The prevalence of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis is low. Agranulocytosis-related death appears rare.
La3+ doped yttrium iron garnet films have been grown on (111) oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates via Liquid phase epitaxy technique as a basic material for ISHE device fabrication. Pt as a material with a large spin hall angle was used as a spin detection layer. We investigated the dependence of the spin pumping effect on the power and frequency of the excitation microwaves in La:YIG/Pt bilayers by measuring the ISHE voltage. We demonstrated that the area under the ISHE curve(SISHE) across a wide power range had a nearly linear correlation with the input microwave power (Pin). The parameter SISHE can be used to describe the spin current energy in a Pt layer which can be a useful parameter for a microwave rectifier.
Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in fibers for high-power lasers can induce significant frequency modulation to amplitude modulation (FM-to-AM) conversion. However, existing techniques are not sufficiently flexible to achieve efficient compensation for such FM-to-AM conversion. By analyzing the nonuniform transmission spectrum caused by PMD, we found that the large-scale envelope of the transmission spectrum has more serious impacts on the amount of AM. In order to suppress the PMD-induced FM-to-AM conversion, we propose a novel tunable spectral filter with multiple degrees of freedom based on a half-wave plate, a nematic liquid crystal, and an axis-rotated polarization-maintaining fiber. Peak wavelength, free spectral range (FSR), and modulation depth of the filter are decoupled and can be controlled independently, which is verified through both simulations and experiments. The filter is utilized to compensate for the PMD-induced FM-to-AM conversion in the front end of a high-power laser facility. The results indicate that, for a pulse with phase-modulation frequency of 22.82 GHz, the FM-to-AM conversion could be reduced from 18% to 3.2% within a short time and maintained below 6.5% for 3 h. The proposed filter is also promising for other applications that require flexible spectral control such as high-speed channel selection in optical communication networks.
Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system. Presently, there is no effective and safe drug to treat patients with PD. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), obtained from leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree, is a complex mixture of ingredients primarily containing two active components: flavonoids and terpenoids. In this study, we investigated the effects of GBE on A53T α-synuclein transgenic mice, a PD model that has better simulated the progression of PD patients than other models such as the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine–induced PD model. Methods: Fifty α-synuclein A53T transgenic mice were fed and treated with GBE, and locomotor activity was detected by pole test, forced swim test, and wire-hang test. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporters was detected using immunohistochemistry. Superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and malondialdehyde expression were detected using an assay kit. Results: Our results show that GBE treatment improved locomotor activity and that superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase inhibited the expression of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde and recovered the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporters. Conclusions: The GBE treatment improved locomotor activity and inhibited the development of PD in the A53T α-synuclein transgenic mice, which may be partly responsible for decreased oxidative damage and maintain the normal dopamine homeostasis.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as citalopram, which selectively block serotonin transporter (5-HTT) activity, are widely used in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Numerous neuroimaging studies have examined the effects of SSRIs on emotional processes. However, there are considerable inter-individual differences in SSRI effect, and a recent meta-analysis further revealed discrepant effects of acute SSRI administration on neural responses to negative emotions in healthy adults.
We examined how a variant of the serotonin-transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which affects the expression and function of 5-HTT, influenced the acute effects of an SSRI (citalopram) on emotion-related brain activity in healthy adults.
Combining genetic neuroimaging, pharmacological technique and a psychological paradigm of emotion recognition, we scanned the short/short (s/s) and long/long (l/l) variants of 5-HTTLPR during perception of fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions after the acute administration of an SSRI (i.e. 30mg citalopram administered orally) or placebo administration.
We found that 5-HTTLPR modulated the acute effects of citalopram on neural responses to negative emotions. Specifically, relative to placebo, citalopram increased amygdala and insula activity in l/l but not s/s homozygotes during perception of fearful faces. Similar analyses of brain activity in response to happy faces did not show any significant effects.
Our combined pharmacogenetic and functional imaging results provide a neurogenetic mechanism for discrepant acute effects of SSRIs.
The bioavailability of dietary ionised calcium is affected by intestinal basic environment. Calcium-binding peptides can form complexes with calcium to improve its absorption and bioavailability. The aim of this study was focused on isolation and characterisation of a calcium-binding peptide from whey protein hydrolysates. Whey protein was hydrolysed using Flavourzyme and Protamex with substrate to enzyme ratio of 25 : 1 (w/w) at 49 °C for 7 h. The calcium-binding peptide was isolated by DEAE anion-exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A purified peptide of molecular mass 204 Da with strong calcium binding ability was identified on chromatography/electrospray ionisation (LC/ESI) tandem mass spectrum to be Glu-Gly (EG) after analysis and alignment in database. The calcium binding capacity of EG reached 67·81 μg/mg, and the amount increased by 95% compared with whey protein hydrolysate complex. The UV and infrared spectrometer analysis demonstrated that the principal sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups and carbonyl groups of glutamic acid. In addition, the amino group and peptide amino are also the related groups in the interaction between EG and calcium ion. Meanwhile, the sequestered calcium percentage experiment has proved that EG-Ca is significantly more stable than CaCl2 in human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. The findings suggest that the purified dipeptide has the potential to be used as ion-binding ingredient in dietary supplements.
A new donor-acceptor structured conjugated polymer (PDODTBI) with trifluoromethylated benzimidazole and benzo[1,2-b;3,4-b']dithiophene (BDT) unit have been designed and synthesized using Stille coupling polymerization reaction. The polymer is highly soluble in common organic solvents such as chloroform, tetrahydrofuran and chlorobenzene with good film forming properties. The structure of the polymer is elucidated by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The introduction of a trifluoromethyl group at 4th position of the benzimidazole unit has significantly altered the optical and electrochemical properties of polymer. Polymer film showed broad absorption band in the range of 400-680 nm. Optical band gap of the polymer estimated from the absorption band edge and is found to be ∼1.88 eV. Polymer exhibited deeper HOMO (-5.0 eV) and the LUMO (-3.12 eV) energy levels. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell device with PDODTBI as a donor and PC61BM as an acceptor were evaluated.
Intentional change when viewed as making a risky or intertemporal choice with evolutionary relevance helps us understand its successes and its failures. To promote future-oriented ecological rationality requires establishing a linkage between nongenetic, cultural, and symbolic selections and genetic adaptations. Coupled with biophilic instinct, intentional conservation is more likely to prevail against evolved desires of environmental exploitation.
Several kinds of exact synchronizations and the generalized exact synchronization are
introduced for a coupled system of 1-D wave equations with various boundary conditions and
we show that these synchronizations can be realized by means of some boundary
In this study, epidemiological factors of sparganosis cases reported in mainland China from 1959 to December 2012 were analysed. A total of 1061 valid cases were distributed throughout most of the provinces of mainland China, with most cases occurring in Southern and Eastern China. The average age of patients was 29 years (range 0–80 years). Modes of transmission to humans were via contact (54·6%), mainly by application of frog meat as a poultice, foodborne (33·8%), mainly through ingesting frogs or snakes, and waterborne (11·5%) through drinking raw water. The tissue/organs involved were subcutaneous/muscle (43·1%), eyes (31·0%), central nervous system (CNS) (17·9%), urogenital system (3·9%) and visceral organs (3·2%). Obvious differences existed in main risk factors for different areas. Close correlation was found between tissue/organs and risk factors. Main modes of transmission changed during the past decades, from contact (83·8% pre-1979) to foodborne (63·9% post-2000). The tissue/organs involved also changed at the same time. Cases involving eyes fell from 50·0% pre-1979 to 8·3% post-2000, and cases involving CNS increased from 0% pre-1979 to 47·8% post-2000. These results illustrate that China is one of the main epidemic countries of sparganosis in the world. Consumption of frog/snake meat was the main risk factor, although application of frog flesh as a poultice was the main risk factor before 2000. Sparganosis has become one of the neglected but important foodborne/waterborne parasitic diseases in mainland China.
Though organic light emitting diodes are being commercialized in many applications, issues relating to lifetime and degradation remain as fundamental concerns limiting performance. A coherent understanding of degradation mechanisms is yet to emerge. We focus on intrinsic degradation of high quality Alq3 based diodes due to electrical stressing. We monitor progressive luminance degradation and recovery by introducing well defined relaxation time windows in the current stress cycles. The method helps to clearly distinguish between recoverable and permanent degradation systematically. The voltage shift due to degradation and recovery is also monitored as a function of time. Further, we introduce a method of reconstructing the transients of the recoverable part using progressive isolated current pulses as a probe. The recovery of degradation is related to the charging and discharging of the traps in the device and our method provides a technique of measuring significant parameters of trapping through luminance transients. The origin and distinguishing features of the two types of degradation are discussed.
The subsolidus phase relations of the Dy-Fe-Al system have been investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction. There are 5 ternary compounds, 10 binary compounds, and 21 three-phase regions in this system. The solid-solution regions of Dy(Fe1−xAlx)2, DyFe3−xAlx, Dy2(Fe1−xAlx)17, and DyFe12−xAlx have been determined based on the dependence of their unit-cell parameters on the Al content.
Here we report rich and new resonant Raman spectral features for several sub-nanometer diameter single wall carbon nanotubes (sub-nm SWNTs) samples grown using chemical vapor deposition technique operating at different temperatures. We find that the high curvature in sub-nm SWNTs leads to (i) an unusual S-like dispersion of the G‑band frequency due to perturbations caused by the strong electron-phonon coupling, and (ii) an activation of diameter-selective intermediate frequency modes that are as intense as the radial breathing modes (RBMs). Furthermore, an analytical approach which includes the effects of curvature into the overlap integral and the energy gap between the van Hove singularities is discussed. Lastly, we show that the phonon spectra for sub-nm SWNTs obtained from the molecular dynamic simulations which employs a curvature-dependent force field concur with our experimental observations.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for imaging the interface between carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and the underlying substrate is presented. By irradiating the electron beam perpendicular to the substrate, bright contrast is observed at the region where a small gap exists between the CNF and substrate. The energy-diameter diagram for the observation of the bright contrast is derived, which can be understood by using the theory of electron penetration into solid. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to reproduce the experimental observation based on our model, and the contrast sensitivity to the gap height is discussed.
Gallium nitride powders were calcined with copper oxide in either air or N2 and analyzed by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution parallel illumination (HRTEM) and scanning probe transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in order to address the structural and electronic effects of Cu-incorporation into GaN. Gallium oxide and multiple copper oxide phases corresponding to the calcination environment were detected. Significant changes in the lattice parameters and electronic structure of the N2-processed GaN indicate incorporation of both copper and oxygen into the GaN lattice as well as changes in the chemical bonding due to the calcinations process. SQUID magnetometer measurements at 300 K demonstrated ferromagnetism in selected samples.