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Extra-care housing (ECH) has been hailed as a potential solution to some of the problems associated with traditional forms of social care, since it allows older people to live independently, while also having access to care and support if required. However, little longitudinal research has focused on the experiences of residents living in ECH, particularly in recent years. This paper reports on a longitudinal study of four ECH schemes in the United Kingdom. Older residents living in ECH were interviewed four times over a two-year period to examine how changes in their care needs were encountered and negotiated by care workers, managers and residents themselves. This paper focuses on how residents managed their own changing care needs within the context of ECH. Drawing upon theories of the third and fourth age, the paper makes two arguments. First, that transitions across the boundary between the third and fourth age are not always straightforward or irreversible and, moreover, can sometimes be resisted, planned-for and managed by older people. Second, that operational practices within ECH schemes can function to facilitate or impede residents’ attempts to manage this boundary.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
Regulatory impact analyses (RIAs) weigh the benefits of regulations against the burdens they impose and are invaluable tools for informing decision makers. We offer 10 tips for nonspecialist policymakers and interested stakeholders who will be reading RIAs as consumers.
1.Core problem: Determine whether the RIA identifies the core problem (compelling public need) the regulation is intended to address.
2.Alternatives: Look for an objective, policy-neutral evaluation of the relative merits of reasonable alternatives.
3.Baseline: Check whether the RIA presents a reasonable “counterfactual” against which benefits and costs are measured.
4.Increments: Evaluate whether totals and averages obscure relevant distinctions and trade-offs.
5.Uncertainty: Recognize that all estimates involve uncertainty, and ask what effect key assumptions, data, and models have on those estimates.
6.Transparency: Look for transparency and objectivity of analytical inputs.
7.Benefits: Examine how projected benefits relate to stated objectives.
8.Costs: Understand what costs are included.
9.Distribution: Consider how benefits and costs are distributed.
10.Symmetrical treatment: Ensure that benefits and costs are presented symmetrically.
We show some examples from a WWW-based catalog, containing Chandra archive data, that is now under construction. Many remnants show manifestations of internal neutron stars, which are of particular interest to this conference.
The Astrophysical Plasma Emission Database (APED) contains atomic data for the 14 most abundant astrophysical elements, collected from the literature. Although APED was originally designed for use in calculating a collisional-equilibrium X-ray spectrum suitable for analysis of high-resolution data, it is in a general format which can be efficiently used to calculate absorption spectra, photoionization models, and non-equilibrium collisional models. We emphasize original sources; each transition, rate, and energy level in APED contains a bibliographic reference. The APED can be downloaded from http://cxc.harvard.edu/atomdb/, or our website WebGUIDE (http://obsvis.harvard.edu/WebGUIDE/) can be used to search for individual lines or transitions. We are continually working to expand APED (current version 1.3.1) and regularly issue updated collections.
The Astrophysical Plasma Emission Code (APEC) collaboration now provides public models for X-ray spectra of collisional equilibrium plasmas. These models facilitate the diagnosis of temperature, density, elemental abundance, charge state, and optical depth. We report benchmarking studies of the APEC models from the Emission Line Project, a project to test these models using high quality stellar coronal spectra. We discuss the implications of the benchmarked atomic data for non-equilibrium collisional models as well. Finally, we discuss the extension of APEC to other applications, such as opacity models for AGN.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
SN 2001ja was observed twice in three months using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The X-ray flux could be due to interaction with the circumstellar medium, perhaps dominated by the reverse shock heated thermal plasma, or from inverse Compton scattering at the forward shock. In both cases, for a steady wind-like circumstellar density profile, the X-ray flux is expected to fall off as a power law or faster. But the flux from the position of SN 2011ja, increased by a factor of three between these observations. In this presentation, we investigated possible reasons, including contamination from other astrophysical sources such as a X-Ray Binary, within the Chandra's resolution, in the host galaxy using our observations, modelling and pre-explosion Chandra/XMM data.
Type IIP SNe constitute a major fraction of all core-collapse supernovae and arise from massive stars that end their lives close to Red Supergiants. The blastwave from the SN interacting with the progenitor's circumstellar matter produces a hot region bounded by a forward and a reverse shock from which most of the X-ray emission originates. Analysis of archival Chandra observations of SN 2004dj, one of the nearest supernovae since SN 1987A, together with published data from radio and optical bands determines the pre-explosion mass-loss rate, blastwave speed, electron acceleration and magnetic field amplification efficiencies. X-ray emission arises from both inverse Compton scattering by non-thermal electrons accelerated in the forward shock and from thermal emission from the supernova ejecta hit by the reverse shock. Determination of the properties of the radiating plasma based on the separation of thermal and non-thermal radiation differentiates different types of supernovae and their environments.
SN 2012AW is a type-IIP supernova which exploded in M95. In this paper we discuss the radio observations of this supernova and model them to determine the important parameters relevant to the explosion and the evolution of blast wave. We also determine the dominant cooling process important to this source.
The fourth age remains a poorly understood phenomenon and there is a lack of understanding of the perceptions of those who might be considered to be living in it. This article draws on findings from a study of dignity in later life which examined the day-to-day experiences of participants who were in need of support and care because of failing health. It discusses their accounts of the changes to their sense of self and their identity that came about as a result of their ageing and health problems and looks also at the ways in which the support and care they received helped to shape their adjustment to those changes. The accounts given by participants reveal a great deal about the physical, mental and emotional effort entailed in maintaining a sense of self and highlight the essential role played by social relationships in the maintenance of identity. These findings are analysed by reference to emerging theories of the fourth age.
Modern x-ray data, available through online archives, are important for many astronomical topics. However, using these data requires specialized techniques and software. Written for graduate students, professional astronomers and researchers who want to start working in this field, this book is a practical guide to x-ray astronomy. The handbook begins with x-ray optics, basic detector physics and CCDs, before focussing on data analysis. It introduces the reduction and calibration of x-ray data, scientific analysis, archives, statistical issues and the particular problems of highly extended sources. The book describes the main hardware used in x-ray astronomy, emphasizing the implications for data analysis. The concepts behind common x-ray astronomy data analysis software are explained. The appendices present reference material often required during data analysis.