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Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the association between schizophrenia and cancer mortality.
To summarise available evidence and quantify the association between schizophrenia and cancer mortality using meta-analysis.
We systematically searched literature in the PubMed and Embase databases. Risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals reported in individual studies were pooled using the DerSimonian–Laird random-effects model.
We included 19 studies in the meta-analysis. Among them, 15 studies reported standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing patients with schizophrenia with the general population, and the pooled SMR was 1.40 (95% CI 1.29–1.52, P<0.001). The other four studies reported hazard ratios (HRs) comparing individuals with schizophrenia with those without schizophrenia; the pooled HR was 1.51 (95% CI 1.13–2.03, P = 0.006).
Patients with schizophrenia are at a significantly increased risk of cancer mortality compared with the general population or individuals without schizophrenia.
A novel dual-band planar antenna with a low profile for mobile communication system is proposed in this paper. The antenna is composed of one shorted patch with two radiating notches for low frequency resonance and one square patch for high frequency resonance. The low profile is achieved via the shorting patch, which introduces the parallel electrical field between the reflector and antenna. A step-impedance microstrip line is used to feed the antenna. The coupling between the square patch and microstrip line cancels out the inductance of shorting probe, which increases the working bandwidth of proposed antenna. A prototype with a low profile of 0.0286λ is fabricated and measured. The antenna achieves dual impedance bandwidths of 1.6% for the low frequency band and 60% for the high frequency band, covering the frequency range 851–865 MHz and 1.97–3.65 GHz, respectively. The measured results show good agreements with the simulated ones.
Choi, Jiang, and Shenkar (2015) offer an interesting and new perspective on the relationship between local governance and firm performance in China. This commentary focuses first on how we conceive of the nature of China's capitalism and then examines what that suggests about their metrics and findings.
In this paper we present a fully discrete A-ø finite element method to solve Maxwell’s
equations with a nonlinear degenerate boundary condition, which represents a
generalization of the classical Silver-Müller condition for a
non-perfect conductor. The relationship between the normal components of the
electric field E and the magnetic field H obeys a power-law nonlinearity of the type H x n = n x (|E x n|α-1E x n) with α ∈ (0,1]. We prove the existence and
uniqueness of the solutions of the proposed A-ø scheme and derive the error estimates. Finally, we
present some numerical experiments to verify the theoretical result.
A 24 GHz low-power transceiver is designed, fabricated, and characterized using 130 nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The designed transceiver is targeted for frequency-modulated-continuous-wave (FMCW) wireless local positioning. The transceiver includes four switchable receiving channels, one transmitting channel and local-oscillator generation circuitries. Several power-saving techniques are implemented, such as switch channel and adaptive mixer biasing. The design aspects of the low-power circuit blocks and integration considerations are presented in details. The integrated transceiver has a chip area of only 2.2 mm × 1.7 mm. In transmitting mode the transceiver achieves an output power of 4 dBm and phase noise of −90 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz, while consuming 75 mW power consumption under 1.5 V power supply. In switch-channel receiving mode the transceiver demonstrates 31 dB gain and 6 dB noise figure with 65 mW power consumption. The transceiver measurements compare well with the simulated results and achieve state-of-the-art performance with very low-power consumption.
To detect the expression of pro-fibrotic molecules, such as heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in liver specimens, and analyse their correlations with the progression of schistosomal hepatic fibrosis, liver biopsy was performed in 42 chronic schistosomiasis (CS) patients, 16 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and five healthy individuals (HI). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses displayed that the expression of Hsp47, TGF-β1 and CTGF was increased in CS and CHB patients compared with HI. Using real-time PCR, the mRNA levels of Hsp47, TGF-β1 and CTGF were higher in CS patients compared with HI. In CS patients, the mRNA levels of these genes were correlated with the stage of fibrosis, and TGF-β1 mRNA expression was associated with the grade of inflammation. Additional analyses indicated that the mRNA levels of Hsp47 and CTGF were highly correlated with liver stiffness value and spleen thickness diameter, both of which represented the severity of fibrosis. In conclusion, the three molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis infected by Schistosoma japonicum. TGF-β1 participates not only in the inflammatory process, but also in the fibrotic process in which Hsp47 and CTGF probably play a key role.
The governing equations for heat transfer and fluid flow are often formulated in a general form for the simplification of discretization and programming, which has achieved great success in thermal science and engineering. Based on the analysis of the popular general form of governing equations, we found that energy conservation cannot be guaranteed when specific heat capacity is not constant, which may lead to unreliable results. A new concept of generalized density is put forward, based on which a new general form of governing equations is proposed to guarantee energy conservation. A number of calculation examples have been employed to verify validation and feasibility.
A gradient structure was synthesized on the surface of Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 alloy with high glass-forming ability by laser surface melting (LSM). Along the laser incident direction, the surface remelted alloy exhibits gradient microstructure distributed in the sequence of amorphous structure, nanocrystal- reinforced amorphous matrix composite (transitional layer A), dendrites–amorphous phase composite (transitional layer B), and crystalline phases from the top surface to the substrate. The formation mechanism of this gradient structure is discussed based on the experimental results of the microstructure together with the finite volume simulation of the process of LSM treatment. The friction coefficient of the transitional layer A is ∼2.5 times lower than those of the other layers under the same sliding friction condition, and possible reasons for this phenomenon are discussed in connection with the rolling motion and material transfer mechanism. The transitional layer B exhibits the best wear resistance among all the structures studied here, which is related to the optimized ratio of microhardness to reduced Young’s modulus (H/Er).
A family of ultrahigh strength Co-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with critical diameters up to 2 mm is synthesized in Co65–xTaxB35 (at.%, x = 5–10) alloys by copper mold casting. The improved glass-forming ability associated with near eutectic compositions is attributed to the appropriate addition of Ta. The glassy alloys exhibit high glass transition temperature of 930–975 K, ultrahigh compressive strength of 5.6–6.0 GPa, high specific strength of 639–654 N·m/g, Vickers hardness of 15–16 GPa, and distinct plastic strain of 0.5–1.5%. The strength and the specific strength are the highest values reported for bulk metallic materials known so far. Several universal criteria correlated with the thermal properties, elastic constants, and mechanical properties were validated in the Co-based BMG system. These Co–Ta–B BMGs combining with superior mechanical properties, high thermal stability, and simple elemental composition are significant for scientific research as modeling materials and industrial application as advanced structural materials.
Ni- and Cu-free Zr–Al–Co–Ag bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with diameters up to 20 mm were synthesized by copper mold casting. The effects of Ag alloying on the superior glass-forming ability (GFA) of Zr–Al–Co–Ag alloys were studied based on the localized atomic structure and crystallization behavior. High-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction result reveals that Ag addition in Zr–Al–Co system results in a more homogeneous local atomic structure, which could be an origin for the improved GFA of the Zr–Al–Co–Ag alloy. Crystallization products of the Zr–Al–Co–Ag glassy alloy are more complex than those of the Zr–Al–Co glassy alloy. The Zr–Al–Co–Ag BMGs free from highly toxic elements Ni and Cu exhibited a combination of superior GFA, high compressive fracture strength over 2000 MPa, low Young’s modulus of 93 to 94 GPa, and good corrosion resistance in phosphate-buffered solution (PBS), inspiring their potential biomedical applications.
This study uses a mixed logit model to analyze monetary and nonmonetary factors that influence location choice behavior of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico shrimpers. Shrimpers' responses to economic conditions are compared and contrasted for two periods related to changing economic conditions in the industry. Results show that even though shrimpers are generally revenue driven in choosing a fishing site, their past experience also plays an important role. Further, changes in economic conditions appear to exhibit an influence on the risk attitudes of some shrimpers.
The compositional dependence of glass formation and thermal and elastic properties was clarified for the ternary La–Al–Co bulk glass-forming system. The existing linear correlation between La concentration and characteristic temperatures, i.e., the glass transition temperature Tg and the onset temperature of crystallization Tx, as well as the elastic moduli in this system can give a useful guideline for the chemical design of desirable bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with tunable physical properties in advance. The relationship between Tg and elastic constants for the La–Al–Co BMGs can be quantitatively described using a microscopic model proposed by T. Egami.
In order to improve the effectiveness of redistributive policies, in 2002 the Chinese government increased fiscal transfers and imposed more stringent regulations on the use of earmarked funds. This article evaluates the impact this had on K county in a north-western province. The case study finds that the misappropriation of earmarked transfers did decrease but this did not necessarily indicate an improvement in the local government's compliance in the usage of transfers. Instead, the county governments found ways to sabotage central policies by exporting fiscal burdens to the subordinate bureaus that received the earmarked subsidies. In some bureaus this was done by reducing the amount of funds allocated for operating expenses. In others it involved increasing staff numbers. These findings provide a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of using earmarked funds and internal supervisory mechanisms to achieve policy objectives in an authoritarian regime.
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