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This paper opens the “black box” of real-world deliberation by using text-as-data methods on a corpus of transcripts from the constitutionally mandated gram sabhas, or village assemblies, of rural India. Drawing on normative theories of deliberation, we identify empirical standards for “good” deliberation based on one’s ability both to speak and to be heard, and use natural language processing methods to generate these measures. We first show that, even in the rural Indian context, these assemblies are not mere “talking shops,” but rather provide opportunities for citizens to challenge their elected officials, demand transparency, and provide information about local development needs. Second, we find that women are at a disadvantage relative to men; they are less likely to speak, set the agenda, and receive a relevant response from state officials. And finally, we show that quotas for women for village presidencies improve the likelihood that female citizens are heard.
In Ethiopia, women’s dietary diversity is low, primarily due to poor food availability and access, both at home and market level. The present study aimed to describe market access using a new definition called market food diversity (MFD) and estimate the impact of MFD, crop and livestock diversity on dietary diversity among women enrolled in the Agriculture to Nutrition (ATONU) trial.
Baseline cross-sectional data collected from November 2016 to January 2017 were used for the analysis. Availability of foods in markets was assessed at the village level and categorized into nine food groups similar to the dietary diversity index for women. Bivariate and multivariate mixed-effects regression analyses were conducted, adjusted for clustering at the village level.
Chicken-producing farmers in rural Ethiopia.
Women (n 2117) aged 15–49 years.
Overall, less than 6 % of women met the minimum dietary diversity (≥5 food groups) and the most commonly consumed food groups were staples and legumes. Median MFD was 4 food groups (interquartile range: 2–8). Multivariate models indicated that women’s dietary diversity differed by livestock diversity, food crop diversity and agroecology, with significant interaction effects between agroecology and MFD.
Women’s dietary diversity is poor in Ethiopia. Local markets are variable in food availability across seasons and agroecological zones. The MFD indicator captures this variability, and women who have access to higher MFD in the highland agroecological zone have better dietary diversity. Thus, MFD has the potential to mitigate the effects of environment on women’s dietary diversity.
Neurological complications following snake and scorpion bite are diverse. Literature regarding patterns of cerebrovascular injury (CVI) and outcomes among these patients is scarce. This is a descriptive study of the clinical profile, brain imaging findings, mechanisms of injury, vascular territory involvement and outcomes of CVI following scorpion and snake envenomation, in a tertiary care center in South India.
Patients with scorpion sting- and snake envenomation-related complications were retrospectively enrolled. Neuroimaging was performed on five patients with each envenomation, and they were found to have neurological involvement. On imaging, three patients were found to have a CVI. Clinical, radiological parameters and outcomes of these patients were studied. We also performed a review of the literature and analyzed the finding of all the cases.
In all, three patients each had evidence of CVI in imaging. An additional 32 reports of scorpion sting-related CVI and 35 reports of snake envenomation-related CVI were identified from the literature. There was a male predominance among these patients. Mean age of the patients with scorpion sting was 42.8 years as compared with 33 years for the patients with snake envenomation. Features of severe envenomation were present in all patients. Persistently depressed sensorium and new-onset focal neurological deficits were seen in 70% of all patients. Infarcts were seen in 88% of patients with snake envenomation and 53% of patients with a scorpion sting. Mortality was 28% among patients with a scorpion sting as compared with 8% with snake envenomation.
Cerebrovascular injuries are uncommon neurological manifestations following scorpion and snake envenomation. These tend to occur in younger patients. Infarcts are more common than bleeds.
The present model is devoted for the steady stagnation point flow of a Williamson micropolar nanofluid with magneto-hydrodynamics and thermal radiation effects passed over a horizontal porous stretching sheet. The fluid is considered to be gray, absorbing-emitting but non-scattering medium. The Cogley-Vincent-Gilles formulation is adopted to simulate the radiation component of heat transfer. By applying similarity analysis, the governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations and they are solved by using the bvp4c package in MATLAB. Numerical computations are carried out for various values of the physical parameters. The effects of momentum, microrotation, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction profiles together with the reduced skin friction coefficient, reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number of both active and passive controls on the wall mass flux are graphically presented. The present results are compared with previously obtained solutions and they are in good agreement. Results show that the skin friction is increasing functions of the Williamson parameter in both stretching and shrinking surfaces.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Müller cells, radial glial cells of the retina, are the principal repository of xanthophyll pigment (lutein, zeaxanthin, meso-zeaxanthin), which are modifiable by diet and visible clinically by autofluorescence imaging. To understand the structural basis of xanthophyll visualization in vivo, we used 3-dimensional electron microscopic reconstruction of Müller cells surrounding one cone in a healthy human fovea. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: From a 21-year-old male organ donor, dissected retinas were rejuvenated by oxygenated Ames medium then fixed in 4% glutaraldehyde. A tissue block 3.5 mm2 centered on the fovea was prepared for Automated Tape Ultramicrotomy (Kasthuri et al., Cell 162: 648–661, 2015). From 1462 serial 65 nm horizontal sections, an area ~250×250 μm was imaged at 6 nm xy resolution. Images were stitched and aligned. TrackEM software on a pen display was used to trace, reconstruct, and display cone #5 (of 186) and its contacting Müller cells. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Cone 5 is ensheathed by 2 types of Müller cells, outer and inner (Dacey, ARVO, 2016). The outer cell is first seen at the external limiting membrane (ELM) between cones 5 and 17. Moving inward from the ELM, it tightly wraps around cone 5’s fiber in a C-shape profile for 78 µm. This Müller cell also intermittently projects to neighboring cones, 2 of which were close to cone 5 at the ELM. As cone 5’s axon approaches the pedicle, it contorts into a corkscrew. The outer cell fluidly molds to this changing shape. At this level, this Müller cell doubles in volume to encompass not only cone 5, but also cone 17 and another Müller cell. In the final 17 µm of the block the Müller cell’s volume quickly dissipates as it sends a small projection towards the internal limiting membrane, eventually encasing an OFF midget bipolar cell also associated with cone 5. In contrast to this outer cell, an inner Müller cell adjoining cone 5 spans only 19 µm, interacting directly with cone 5 and the outer cell for 3.9 µm. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Neural-glial relationships in a human fovea are visible through 3-dimensional volume EM. The volume of Müller cells in the fovea was impressive, consistent with a pivotal role in the health of cone photoreceptors and xanthophyll homeostasis. It is possible that individual glia also ensheath the post-receptoral neurons in a cone-driven circuit, supporting the concept that xanthophylls contribute to neural efficiency in vision.
Parthenotes are characterized by poor in vitro developmental potential either due to the ploidy status or the absence of paternal factors. In the present study, we demonstrate the beneficial role of sperm-derived factors (SDF) on the in vitro development of mouse parthenotes. Mature (MII) oocytes collected from superovulated Swiss albino mice were activated using strontium chloride (SrCl2) in the presence or absence of various concentrations of SDF in M16 medium. The presence of SDF in activation medium did not have any significant influence on the activation rate. However, a significant increase in the developmental potential of the embryos and increased blastocyst rate (P < 0.01) was observed at 50 µg/ml concentration. Furthermore, the activated oocytes from this group exhibited early cleavage and cortical distribution of cortical granules that was similar to that of normally fertilized zygotes. Culturing 2-cell stage parthenotes in the presence of SDF significantly improved the developmental potential (P < 0.05) indicating that they also play a significant role in embryo development. In conclusion, artificial activation of oocytes with SDF can improve the developmental potential of parthenotes in vitro.
The design and integration of penta-band planar antenna with a low noise amplifier (LNA) for vehicular wireless applications is discussed in this research. By integrating antenna with a LNA, the return loss can be kept low with the increased bandwidth compared with a passive antenna with the same design. The performance of the passive antenna, LNA, and integrated active antenna (IAA) are individually validated with the aid of vector network analyzer. The designed IAA covers navigational frequencies 1.2 and 1.5 GHz, wireless communication frequencies 2.4, 3.3 GHz and dedicated short range communication frequency 5.8 GHz, with LNA gain (>10 dB) and noise figure (<2 dB). The proposed design gives room for simultaneous reception of all the desired frequency bands with better performance for vehicular communications.
Owing to dynamic nature of vehicular environments, it becomes essential to achieve effective communication via vehicle-to-vehicle and infrastructure-to-vehicle. This leads to the need for an antenna system that supports multiple frequency bands, high gain, broadside radiation pattern, and circular polarization. We propose single-arm penta-band-based spiral antenna with dimensions of 51 × 35 × 1.574 mm3 resonating at navigational wireless frequencies 1.2 GHz for IRNSS and 1.5 GHz for GPS; wireless communication frequencies 2.45 and 3.3 GHz and dedicated short range communication frequency 5.8 GHz. Linear taper feed has been introduced to achieve good impedance matching and the outer edge feed of the spiral on the same plane helps to achieve circular polarization. The measurement result proves the betterment in impedance of the spiral antenna that varies from 50 –55 Ω across the desired operating frequencies.
Optimization is an important step in the design and development of a planar parallel manipulator. For optimization processes, workspace analysis is a crucial and preliminary objective. Generally, the workspace analysis for such manipulators is carried out using a non-dimensional approach. For planar parallel manipulators of two degrees of freedom (2-DOF), a non-dimensional workspace analysis is very advantageous. However, it becomes very difficult in the case of 3-DOF and higher DOF manipulators because of the complex shape of the workspace. In this study, the workspace shape is classified as a function of the geometric parameters, and the closed-form area expressions are derived for a constant orientation workspace of a three revolute–revolute–revolute (3-RRR) planar manipulator. The approach is also shown to be feasible for different orientations of a mobile platform. An optimization procedure for the design of planar 3-RRR manipulators is proposed for a prescribed workspace area. It is observed that the closed-form area expression for all the possible shapes of the workspace provides a larger solution space, which is further optimized considering singularity, mass of the manipulator, and a force transmission index.
Telehealth has great promise to improve and even revolutionize emergency response and recovery. Yet telehealth in general, and direct-to-consumer (DTC) telehealth in particular, are underutilized in disasters. Direct-to-consumer telehealth services allow patients to request virtual visits with health care providers, in real-time, via phone or video conferencing (online video or mobile phone applications). Although DTC services for routine primary care are growing rapidly, there is no published literature on the potential application of DTC telehealth to disaster response and recovery because these services are so new. This report presents several potential uses of DTC telehealth across multiple disaster phases (acute response, subacute response, and recovery) while noting the logistical, legal, and policy challenges that must be addressed to allow for expanded use.
Uscher-PinesL, FischerS, ChariR. The Promise of Direct-to-Consumer Telehealth for Disaster Response and Recovery. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):454–456.
Genetic diversity and relationship of 92 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes from India and exotic collections were examined using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and phenotypic traits to identify new sources of diversity that could accelerate the development of improved wheat varieties better suited to meet the challenges posed by heat stress in India. Genetic diversity assessed by using 82 SSR markers was compared with diversity evaluated using five physiological and six agronomic traits under the heat stress condition. A total of 248 alleles were detected, with a range of two to eight alleles per locus. The average polymorphic information content value was 0.37, with a range of 0.04 (cfd9) to 0.68 (wmc339). The heat susceptibility index was determined for grain yield per spike, and the genotypes were grouped into four categories. Two dendrograms that were constructed based on phenotypic and molecular analysis using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) were found to be topologically different. Genotypes characterized as highly heat tolerant were distributed among all the SSR-based cluster groups. This implies that the genetic basis of heat stress tolerance in these genotypes is different, thereby enabling wheat breeders to combine these diverse sources of genetic variability to improve heat tolerance in their breeding programmes.
Despite the growing awareness that youth are not just passive victims of disaster but can contribute to a community’s disaster resilience, there have been limited efforts to formally engage youth in strengthening community resilience. The purpose of this brief report was to describe the development of a Youth Resilience Corps, or YRC (ie, a set of tools to engage young people in youth-led community resilience activities) and the findings from a small-scale pilot test.
The YRC was developed with input from a range of government and nongovernmental stakeholders. We conducted a pilot test with youth in Washington, DC, during summer 2014. Semi-structured focus groups with staff and youth surveys were used to obtain feedback on the YRC tools and to assess what participants learned.
Focus groups and youth surveys suggested that the youth understood resilience concepts, and that most youth enjoyed and learned from the components.
The YRC represent an important first step toward engaging youth in building disaster resilience, rather than just focusing on this group as a vulnerable population in need of special attention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:47–50)
We present an analysis of the optical nuclear spectra from the active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a sample of giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxies. GLSB galaxies are extreme late type spirals that are large, isolated and poorly evolved compared to regular spiral galaxies. Earlier studies have indicated that their nuclei have relatively low mass black holes. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we selected a sample of 30 GLSB galaxies that showed broad Hα emission lines in their AGN spectra. In some galaxies such as UGC 6284, the broad component of Hα is more related to outflows rather than the black hole. One galaxy (UGC 6614) showed two broad components in Hα, one associated with the black hole and the other associated with an outflow event. We derived the nuclear black hole (BH) masses of 29 galaxies from their broad Hα parameters. We find that the nuclear BH masses lie in the range 105 – 107 M⊙. The bulge stellar velocity dispersion σe was determined from the underlying stellar spectra. We compared our results with the existing BH mass - velocity dispersion (MBH–σe) correlations and found that the majority of our sample lie in the low BH mass regime and below the MBH–σe correlation. The effects of galaxy orientation in the measurement of σe and the increase of σe due to the effects of bar are probable reasons for the observed offset for some galaxies, but in many galaxies the offset is real. A possible explanation for the MBH–σe offset could be lack of mergers and accretion events in the history of these galaxies which leads to a lack of BH-bulge co-evolution.
Here we present the first results from the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) which aims to investigate the physics of ∼140 radio-detected southern active Galaxies with z<0.02 through Integral Field Spectroscopy using the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS). This instrument provides data cubes of the central 38×25 arc sec. of the target galaxies in the waveband 340–710nm with the unusually high resolution of R=7000 in the red (530–710nm), and R=3000 in the blue (340–560nm). These data provide the morphology, kinematics and the excitation structure of the extended narrow-line region, probe relationships with the black hole characteristics and the host galaxy, measures host galaxy abundance gradients and the determination of nuclear abundances from the HII regions. From photoionisation modelling, we may determine the shape of the ionising spectrum of the AGN, discover whether AGN metallicities differ from nuclear abundances determined from HII regions, and probe grain destruction in the vicinity of the AGN. Here we present some preliminary results and modelling of both Seyfert galaxies observed as part of the survey.
We present the detection of molecular gas using CO(1–0) line emission and followup Hα imaging observations of galaxies located in nearby voids. The CO(1–0) observations were done using the 45m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) and the optical observations were done using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT). Although void galaxies lie in the most underdense parts of our universe, a significant fraction of them are gas rich, spiral galaxies that show signatures of ongoing star formation. Not much is known about their cold gas content or star formation properties. In this study we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies using the NRO. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively higher IRAS fluxes or Hα line luminosities. CO(1–0) emission was detected in four galaxies and the derived molecular gas masses lie between (1 - 8)×109M⊙. The Hα imaging observations of three galaxies detected in CO emission indicates ongoing star formation and the derived star formation rates vary between from 0.2 – 1.0 M7odot; yr-1, which is similar to that observed in local galaxies. Our study shows that although void galaxies reside in underdense regions, their disks may contain molecular gas and have star formation rates similar to galaxies in denser environments.
We present results of chemical abundance study of a few representative stellar streams of Galactic thick and thin discs. Arcturus stream, which was proposed to have an extragalactic origin, and a recently detected stream called AF06 were studied. Results show a range of metallicity, age and abundance pattern that are consistent with those of Galactic thick disc component. We found similar results for AF06. The abundance and age results unambiguously rule out the possibility that the member stars are vestiges of open clusters. Abundance results of a sample of stars of Sirius and Hercules streams combined with the kinematics show that both the streams belong to the thin disc component. Also, results rule out these are remnants of open clusters. It is likely these streams formed insitu due to perturbations caused by non-axisymmetric components such as bar or spirals.