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Public concern regarding the use of herbicides in urban areas (e.g., golf courses, parks, lawns) is increasing. Thus, there is a need for alternative methods for weed control that are safe for the public, effective against weeds, and yet selective to turfgrass and other desirable species. New molecular tools such as ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) have the potential to meet all those requirements, but before these technologies can be implemented, it is critical to understand the perceptions of key stakeholders to facilitate adoption as well as regulatory processes. With this in mind, turfgrass system managers, such as golf course superintendents and lawn care providers, were surveyed to gain insight into the perception and potential adoption of RNAi technology for weed management. Based on survey results, turfgrass managers believe that cost of weed management and time spent managing weeds are the main challenges faced in their fields. When considering new weed management tools, survey respondents were most concerned about cost, efficacy, and efficiency of a new product. Survey respondents were also optimistic toward RNAi for weed management and would either use this technology in their own fields or be willing to conduct research to develop RNAi herbicides. Although respondents believed that the general public would have some concerns about this technology, they did not believe this to be the most important factor for them when choosing new weed management tools. The need for new herbicides to balance weed control challenges and public demands is a central factor for turfgrass managers’ willingness to use RNAi-based weed control in turfgrass systems. They believe their clientele will be accepting of RNAi tools, although further research is needed to investigate how a wider range of stakeholders perceive RNAi tools for turfgrass management more broadly.
We conducted an online survey of weed scientists in the United States and Canada to (1) identify research topics perceived to be important for advancing weed science in the next 5 to 10 years and (2) gain insight into potential gaps in current expertise and funding sources needed to address those priorities. Respondents were asked to prioritize nine broad research areas, as well as 5 to 10 subcategories within each of the broad areas. We received 475 responses, with the majority affiliated with academic institutions (55%) and working in cash crop (agronomic or horticultural) study systems (69%). Results from this survey provide valuable discussion points for policy makers, funding agencies, and academic institutions when allocating resources for weed science research. Notably, our survey reveals a strong prioritization of Cultural and Preventative Weed Management (CPWM) as well as the emerging area of Precision Weed Management and Robotics (PWMR). Although Herbicides remain a high-priority research area, continuing challenges necessitating integrated, nonchemical tactics (e.g., herbicide resistance) and emerging opportunities (e.g., robotics) are reflected in our survey results. Despite previous calls for greater understanding and application of weed biology and ecology in weed research, as well as recent calls for greater integration of social science perspectives to address weed management challenges, these areas were ranked considerably lower than those focused more directly on weed management. Our survey also identified a potential mismatch between research priorities and expertise in several areas, including CPWM, PWMR, and Weed Genomics, suggesting that these topics should be prime targets for expanded training and collaboration. Finally, our survey suggests an increasing reliance on private sector funding for research, raising concerns about our discipline’s capacity to address important research priority areas that lack clear private sector incentives for investment.
North African knapweed (Centaurea diluta Aiton), cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.), corn marigold [Glebionis segetum (L.) Fourr.], rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin), and corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) are weeds of economic importance in the Iberian Peninsula, particularly due to limited herbicide options for effective control. For this reason, information about their seedling emergence has become critical to develop effective integrated management strategies and better time control actions. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of seed burial depth and soil disturbance on the emergence of these weed species. Two pot experiments were carried out to (1) quantify seedling emergence at three burial depths (2, 5, and 9 cm) and (2) characterize seedling emergence in response to different frequencies and timings of soil disturbance. Burial depth limited the emergence of G. segetum and P. rhoeas at 5 and 9 cm, respectively; while seedling emergence of C. diluta, C. cyanus, and L. rigidum were reduced by 92%, 90%, and 67% at 9 cm compared with 2 cm, respectively. Two or more sequential soil disturbance events increased total seedling emergence of C. diluta, P. rhoeas, and G. segetum compared with single events, while L. rigidum did not respond to repeated soil disturbance. These results suggest that turning the soil to bury weed seeds down to 5 cm or deeper would be a very effective method to control G. segetum and P. rhoeas and moderately effective to control C. cyanus. Also, the use of a stale seedbed would have some efficacy to reduce P. rhoeas and C. diluta weed pressure within the crop. This study illustrates how differences among species in seedling emergence in response to soil depth and disturbance can determine distinct emergence patterns ultimately influencing the selection of weed control tools and timing.
Unoccupied aerial application systems (UAAS) are gaining popularity for weed management to increase applicator safety and to deliver herbicide treatments where treatment sites limit ground-based spray equipment. Several studies have documented UAAS application strategies and procedures for weed control in terrestrial settings, yet literature describing remote spray technology for use in aquatics remains limited. Currently, applicators seek guidance for UAAS deployment for aquatic weed management to overcome site access restrictions, deal with environmental limitations, and improve ground-based applicator safety in hazardous treatment scenarios. In the present case studies, we evaluate a consumer-available UAAS to deliver the herbicide, florpyrauxifen-benzyl, as both foliar and directed in-water spray applications. The first case study showed that the invasive floating-leaved plant, yellow floating heart, was controlled 80% to 99% by 6 wk after treatment (WAT) following UAAS foliar herbicide treatments. The second case study demonstrated that UAAS directed in-water herbicide application reduced variable-leaf watermilfoil visible plant material by 94% at 5 WAT. Likewise, directed in-water applications from UAAS eliminated the need to deploy watercraft, which improved overall operational efficiency. Data from both case studies indicate that UAAS can provide an effective and efficient treatment strategy for floating-leaved and submersed plant control among common herbicide treatment scenarios. Future integration of UAAS in aquatic weed control programs is encouraged, especially among smaller treatment sites (≤4 ha) or where access limits traditional spray operations.
Expanding the current aquatic herbicide portfolio, reducing total spray volumes, or remotely delivering herbicide using novel spray technologies could improve management opportunities targeting invasive aquatic plants, where options are more limited. However, research on giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta Mitchell) response to foliar herbicide applications at carrier volumes ≤140 L ha−1 is incomplete. Likewise, no data exist documenting S. molesta control with unoccupied aerial application systems (UAAS). Following the recent >100-ha incursion of S. molesta in Gapway Swamp, NC, a case study was developed to provide guidance for ongoing management efforts. In total, three field trials evaluated registered aquatic and experimental herbicides using a 140 L ha−1 carrier volume. Select foliar applications from UAAS were also evaluated. Results at 8 wk after treatment (WAT) indicated the experimental protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor, PPO-699-01 (424 g ai ha−1), in combination with endothall dipotassium salt (2,370 g ae ha−1) provided 78% visual control, whereas control when PPO-699-01 (212 g ai ha−1) was applied alone was lower at 35%. Evaluations also showed diquat (3,136 g ai ha−1) alone, glyphosate (4,539 g ae ha−1) alone, and metsulfuron-methyl (42 g ai ha−1) alone achieved 86% to 94% visual plant control at 8 WAT. Sequential foliar applications of diquat, flumioxazin (210 g ai ha−1), and carfentrazone (67 g ai ha−1) at 6 wk following exposure to in-water fluridone treatments were no longer efficacious by 6 WAT due to plant regrowth. Carfentrazone applications made from a backpack sprayer displayed greater control than applications made with UAAS deploying identical carrier volumes at 2 WAT; however, neither application method provided effective control at 8 WAT. Additional field validation is needed to further guide management direction of S. molesta control using low carrier volume foliar applications.
The current assays to confirm herbicide resistance can be time- and labor-intensive (dose–response) or require a skill set/technical equipment (genetic sequencing). Stakeholders could benefit from a rapid assay to confirm herbicide-resistant weeds to ensure sustainable crop production. Because protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides rapidly interfere with chlorophyll production/integrity; we propose a new, rapid assay utilizing spectral reflectance to confirm resistance. Leaf disks were excised from two PPO-inhibiting herbicide-resistant (target-site [TSR] and non–target site [NTSR]) and herbicide-susceptible redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) populations and placed into a 24-well plate containing different concentrations (0 to 10 mM) of fomesafen for 48 h. A multispectral sensor captured images from the red (668 nm), green (560 nm), blue (475 nm), and red edge (717 nm) wavebands after a 48-h incubation period. The green leaf index (GLI) was utilized to determine spectral reflectance ratios of the treated leaf disks. Clear differences of spectral reflectance were observed in the red edge waveband for all populations treated with the 10 mM concentration in the dose–response assays. Differences of spectral reflectance were observed for the NTSR population compared with the TSR and susceptible populations treated with the 10 mM concentration in the green waveband and the GLI in the dose–response assay. Leaf disks from the aforementioned A. retroflexus populations and two additional susceptible populations were subjected to a similar assay with the discriminating concentration (10 mM). Spectral reflectance was different between the PPO-inhibiting herbicide-resistant and herbicide-susceptible populations in the red, blue, and green wavebands. Spectral reflectance was not distinctive between the populations in the red edge waveband and the GLI. The results provide a basis for rapidly (∼48 h) detecting PPO-inhibiting herbicide-resistant A. retroflexus via spectral reflectance. Discrimination between TSR and NTSR populations was possible only in the dose–response assay, but the assay still has utility in distinguishing herbicide-resistant plants from herbicide-susceptible plants.
Complaints of control failures with acetolactate synthase (ALS)- and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) were reported in conventional soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields in North Carolina. Greenhouse dose–response assays confirmed that the Camden County and Pasquotank County populations were less sensitive to ALS- and PPO-inhibiting herbicides compared with susceptible A. retroflexus populations, suggesting the evolution of resistance to these herbicides. Sanger sequencing of target genes determined the Camden County population carried a Trp-574-Leu mutation in the ALS gene and an Arg-98-Gly mutation in the PPX2 gene, while the Pasquotank County population carried a His-197-Pro mutation in the ALS gene (first documentation of the mutation in the Amaranthus genus), but no mutation was detected in the PPX2 gene. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays were developed to enable efficient screening of future control failures in order to limit the spread of these herbicide-resistant populations. In addition, preliminary testing of these assays revealed the three mutations were ubiquitous in the respective populations. These two populations represent the first confirmed cases of PPO-inhibiting herbicide-resistant A. retroflexus in the United States, as well as the first confirmed cases of this particular herbicide-resistance profile in A. retroflexus inhabiting North America. While no mutation was found in the PPX2 gene of the Pasquotank County population, we suggest that this population has evolved resistance to PPO-inhibiting herbicides, but the mechanism of resistance is to be determined.
Competition between genotypes within a plant population can result in the displacement of the least competitive by more competitive genotypes. Although evolutionary processes in plants may occur over thousands and millions of years, it has been suggested that changes in key fitness traits could occur in as little as decades, with herbicide resistance being a common example. However, the rapid evolution of complex traits has not been proven in weeds. We hypothesized that changes in weed growth and competitive ability can occur in just a few years because of selection in agroecosystems. Seed of multiple generations of a single natural population of the grassy weed giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) were collected during 34 yr (i.e., 1983 to 2017). Using a “resurrection” approach, we characterized life-history traits of the different year-lines under noncompetitive and competitive conditions. Replacement-series experiments comparing the growth of the oldest year-line (1983) versus newer year-lines (1991, 1996, 1998, 2009, and 2017) showed that plant competitive ability decreased and then increased progressively in accordance with oscillating selection. The adaptations in competitive ability were reflected in dynamic changes in leaf area and biomass when plants were in competition. The onset of increased competitive ability coincided with the introduction of herbicide-resistant crops in the landscape in 1996. We also conducted a genome-wide association study and identified four loci that were associated with increased competitive ability over time, confirming that this trait changed in response to directional selection. Putative transcription factors and cell wall–associated enzymes were linked to those loci. This is the first study providing direct in situ evidence of rapid directional evolution of competitive ability in a plant species. The results suggest that agricultural systems can exert enough pressure to cause evolutionary adaptations of complex life-history traits, potentially increasing weediness and invasiveness.
Field studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of physical weed management of Palmer amaranth management in cucumber, peanut, and sweetpotato. Treatments were arranged in a 3 × 4 factorial in which the first factor included a treatment method of electrical, mechanical, or hand-roguing Palmer amaranth control and the second factor consisted of treatments applied when Palmer amaranth was approximately 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, or 1.2 m above the crop canopy. Four wk after treatment (WAT), the electrical applications controlled Palmer amaranth at least 27 percentage points more than the mechanical applications when applied at the 0.3- and 0.6-m timings. At the 0.9- and 1.2-m application timings 4 WAT, electrical and mechanical applications controlled Palmer amaranth by at most 87%. Though hand removal generally resulted in the greatest peanut pod count and total sweetpotato yield, mechanical and electrical control resulted in similar yield to the hand-rogued plots, depending on the treatment timing. With additional research to provide insight into the optimal applications, there is potential for electrical control and mechanical control to be used as alternatives to hand removal. Additional studies were conducted to determine the effects of electrical treatments on Palmer amaranth seed production and viability. Treatments consisted of electricity applied to Palmer amaranth at first visible inflorescence, 2 wk after first visible inflorescence (WAI) or 4 WAI. Treatments at varying reproductive maturities did not reduce the seed production immediately after treatment. However, after treatment, plants primarily died and ceased maturation, reducing seed production assessed at 4 WAI by 93% and 70% when treated at 0 and 2 WAI, respectively. Treatments did not have a negative effect on germination or seedling length.
Glufosinate is an effective postemergence herbicide, and overreliance on this herbicide for weed control is likely to increase and select for glufosinate-resistant weeds. Common assays to confirm herbicide resistance are dose–response and molecular sequencing techniques; both can require significant time, labor, unique technical equipment, and a specialized skillset to perform. As an alternative, we propose an image-based approach that uses a relatively inexpensive multispectral sensor designed for unmanned aerial vehicles to measure and quantify surface reflectance from glufosinate-treated leaf disks. Leaf disks were excised from a glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] varieties and placed into a 24-well plate containing eight different concentrations (0 to 10 mM) of glufosinate for 48 h. Multispectral images were collected after the 48-h incubation period across five discrete wave bands: blue (475 to 507 nm), green (560 to 587 nm), red (668to 682 nm), red edge (717 to 729 nm), and near infrared (842 to 899 nm). The green leaf index (GLI; a metric to measure chlorophyll content) was utilized to determine relationships between measured reflectance from the tested wave bands from the treated leaf disks and the glufosinate concentration. Clear differences of spectral reflectance were observed between the corn, cotton, and soybean leaf disks of the glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible varieties at the 10 mM concentration for select wave bands and GLI. Leaf disks from two additional glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible varieties of each crop were subjected to a similar assay with two concentrations: 0 and 10 mM. No differences of spectral reflectance were observed from the corn and soybean varieties in all wave bands and the GLI. The leaf disks of the glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible cotton varieties were spectrally distinct in the green, blue, and red-edge wave bands. The results provide a basis for rapidly detecting glufosinate-resistant plants via spectral reflectance. Future research will need to determine the glufosinate concentrations, useful wave bands, and susceptible/resistant thresholds for weeds that evolve resistance.
High crop densities are valuable to increase weed suppression, but growers might be reluctant to implement this practice due to increased seed cost. Because it is also possible to lower planting densities in areas with no or low weed interference risk, the area allocated to each planting density must be optimized considering seed cost and productivity per plant. In this study, the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were characterized in response to low planting densities and arrangements. The results were used to develop a bioeconomic model to optimize the area devoted to high- and low-density plantings to increase weed suppression without increasing seed cost. Physiological differences seen in each crop varied with the densities tested; however, maize was the only crop that had differences in yield (per area) between densities. When a model to optimize low and high planting densities was used, maize and cotton showed the most plasticity in yield per planted seed (g seed−1) and area of low density to compensate for high-density area unit. Maize grown at 75% planting density compared with the high-planting density (200%) increased yield (g seed−1) by 229%, return by 43%, and profit by 79% while decreasing the low-density area needed to compensate for high-density area. Cotton planted at 25% planting density compared with the 200% planting density increased yield (g seed−1) by 1,099%, return by 46%, and profit by 62% while decreasing the low-density area needed to compensate for high-density area. In contrast, the high morphological plasticity of soybean did not translate into changes in area optimization, as soybean maintained return, profit, and a 1:1 ratio for area compensation. This optimization model could allow for the use of variable planting at large scales to increase weed suppression while minimizing costs to producers.
Dicamba and glufosinate are among the few effective postemergence herbicides to control multiple herbicide-resistant weeds in southeastern U.S. cotton and soybean production. Field studies were conducted to determine the effect of weed size and the application of dicamba and glufosinate individually, mixed, or sequentially on common ragweed, goosegrass, large crabgrass, ivyleaf morningglory, Palmer amaranth, and sicklepod control. Sequential herbicide treatments were applied 7 d after the initial treatment. The tested weeds sizes predominantly did not affect weed control. Control of broadleaf weed species with sequential herbicide applications never increased compared to the initial herbicide application. Two applications of glufosinate and/or dicamba + glufosinate controlled grasses better than one application. The order of the herbicides in the sequential applications did not affect broadleaf species control, whereas herbicide order was important for the control of grass weeds. Grass weed control was higher when glufosinate was applied before dicamba. Dicamba + glufosinate additively controlled the weeds, except for goosegrass, for which control was less for dicamba + glufosinate compared to glufosinate alone. The results of the experiment provide evidence that dicamba and glufosinate applied individually, mixed, and sequentially are effective on common row crop weeds found in the southeastern United States, but the species present may dictate how the herbicides are applied together.
Recent innovations in 3D imaging technology have created unprecedented potential for better understanding weed responses to management tactics. Although traditional 2D imaging methods for mapping weed populations can be limited in the field by factors such as shadows and tissue overlap, 3D imaging mitigates these challenges by using depth data to create accurate plant models. Three-dimensional imaging can be used to generate spatiotemporal maps of weed populations in the field and target weeds for site-specific weed management, including automated precision weed control. This technology will also help growers monitor cover crop performance for weed suppression and detect late-season weed escapes for timely control, thereby reducing seedbank persistence and slowing the evolution of herbicide resistance. In addition to its many applications in weed management, 3D imaging offers weed researchers new tools for understanding spatial and temporal heterogeneity in weed responses to integrated weed management tactics, including weed–crop competition and weed community dynamics. This technology will provide simple and low-cost tools for growers and researchers alike to better understand weed responses in diverse agronomic contexts, which will aid in reducing herbicide use, mitigating herbicide-resistance evolution, and improving environmental health.
Tropical spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis L.) is a noxious invasive species and was detected in a long-term experiment in a research farm in Goldsboro, NC. A multistakeholder governance model was used to address the invasion of this species. Regulators insisted on the use of fumigation in all fields, but after intense negotiations, a multi-tier eradication plan was designed and implemented, allowing fumigation outside the long-term experiment and a combination of integrated approaches (including physical removal) and intense monitoring and mapping for long-term experimental fields. In the long-term experiment, C. benghalensis populations decreased logarithmically from more than 50,000 plants in approximately 80 ha in 2005 to 19 plants in less than 1 ha in 2019, with a projection of full eradication by 2024. Despite these results, which were considered to be proof of successful ecological management by university researchers, regulators decided to fumigate the fields containing the remaining 19 plants. This decision was made because regulators considered factors such as professional liability and control efficacy. This created serious disagreements between the different stakeholders who participated in the design of the original plan. Despite the goodwill all parties exhibited at the beginning of the governance process, there were important shortcomings that likely contributed to the disagreements at the end. For example, the plan did not include specific milestones, and there was no clarity about what acceptable progress was based on (i.e., plant numbers or the rate of population decline). Also, no financial limits were established, which made administrators concerned about the financial burden the eradication program had become over time. Multistakeholder governance can effectively address plant invasions, but proper definition of progress and the point at which the program must be modified are critical for success, and all this must be done within a governance model that balances power in the decision-making process.
The adoption of dicamba-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars allows using dicamba to reduce weed populations across growing seasons. However, the overuse of this tool risks selecting new herbicide-resistant biotypes. The objectives of this research were to determine the population trajectories of several weed species and track the frequency of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) over 8 yr in dicamba-resistant cotton. An experiment was established in North Carolina in 2011, and during the first 4 yr, different herbicide programs were applied. These programs included postemergence applications of glyphosate, alone or with dicamba, with or without residual herbicides. During the last 4 yr, all programs received glyphosate plus dicamba. Biennial rotations of postemergence applications of glyphosate only and glyphosate plus dicamba postemergence with and without preemergence herbicides were also included. Sequential applications of glyphosate plus dicamba were applied to the entire test area for the final 4 yr of the study. No herbicide program was entirely successful in controlling the weed community. Weed population trajectories were different according to species and herbicide program, creating all possible outcomes; some increased, others decreased, and others remained stable. Density of resistant A. palmeri increased during the first 4 yr with glyphosate-only programs (up to 11,739 plants m−2) and decreased a 96% during the final 4 yr, when glyphosate plus dicamba was implemented. This species had a strong influence on population levels of other weed species in the community. Goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] was not affected by A. palmeri population levels and even increased its density in some herbicide programs, indicating that not only herbicide resistance but also reproductive rates and competitive dynamics are critical for determining weed population trajectories under intensive herbicide-based control programs. Frequency of glyphosate resistance reached a maximum of 62% after 4 yr, and those levels were maintained until the end of the experiment.
Adoption of the new biofuel crop carinata (Brassica carinata A. Braun) in the southeastern United States will largely hinge on sound agronomic recommendations that can be economically incorporated into and are compatible with existing rotations. Timing of weed control is crucial for yield protection and long-term weed seedbank management, but predictive weed emergence models have not been as widely studied in winter crops for this purpose. In this work, we use observed and predicted emergence of a winter annual weed community to create recommendations for timing weed control according to weed and crop phenology progression. Observed emergence timings for four winter annual weed species in North Carolina were used to validate previously published models developed for winter annual weeds in Florida by accounting for temperature and daylength differences, and this approach explained more than 70% of the variability in observed emergence. Emergence of stinking chamomile (Anthemis cotula L.) and cutleaf evening primrose (Oenothera laciniata Hill.) followed biphasic patterns comparable to wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.), which were predicted with previously published models accounting for 82% and 84% of the variation, respectively. Using the predictive models for weed emergence and carinata growth, critical control windows (CCW) were estimated for Clayton, NC, and Jay, FL, according to different planting dates. The results demonstrated how early planting coincided with the emergence of three competitive winter weeds, but early control could also remove a large proportion of the predicted emergence of these species. The framework for how planting timing will affect winter weed emergence and crop growth will be an instructive decision-making tool to help prepare farmers to manage weeds in carinata, but it could also be useful for weed management planning for other winter crops.
Glufosinate is among the few remaining effective herbicides for postemergence weed control in North Carolina crops. The evolution of glufosinate resistance in key weeds is currently not widespread in North Carolina, but to better assess the current status of glufosinate effectiveness, surveys were distributed at Extension meetings in 2019 and 2020. The surveys were designed to provide information about North Carolina farmers’ perception of glufosinate and its use. Survey results indicate that many North Carolina farmers (≥26%) apply glufosinate at the correct timing (5- to 10-cm weeds). In addition, North Carolina farmers (≥22%) are applying glufosinate as a complementary herbicide to other efficacious herbicides and to control herbicide-resistant weeds, suggesting that glufosinate is part of a diverse chemical weed management plan. Conversely, survey findings indicated that some farmers (13% to 17%) rely exclusively on glufosinate for weed control. Additionally, 28% to 30% of farmers reported glufosinate control failures, and control failures were observed on several weed species among corn, cotton, and soybean crops. The results of the survey suggest that most North Carolina farmers are currently stewarding glufosinate, but they also support the need for Extension personnel to keep educating farmers on how to correctly use glufosinate to delay the evolution of glufosinate-resistant weeds. Semiannual surveys should be distributed to monitor where glufosinate control failures occur and the weed species not being controlled.
Carinata (Brassica carinata A. Braun) is a potential crop for biofuel production, but the risk of injury resulting from carryover of soil herbicides used in rotational crops is of concern. The present study evaluated the carryover risk of imazapic and flumioxazin for carinata. Label rates of imazapic (70 g ai ha−1) and flumioxazin (107 g ai ha−1) were applied 24, 18, 12, 6, and 3 mo before carinata planting (MBP). The same herbicides were applied preemergence right after carinata planting at 1X, 0.5X, 0.25X, 0.125X, 0.063X, and 0X the label rate. When either herbicide was applied earlier than 3 MBP, there was no difference in plant density compared with the nontreated control. Carinata damage was <25% when flumioxazin or imazapic was applied at least 6 MBP in Clayton, NC (sandy loam soil), while in Jackson Springs, NC (coarser-textured soil and higher precipitation), at least 12 MPB were needed to lower plant damage to <25%. Preemergence application of 0.063X each herbicide decreased plant density by 40%, with damage reaching >25%. Quantification of herbicide residues in both soils showed that imazapic moved deeper in the soil profile than flumioxazin. This was more evident in Jackson Springs, where 0.68, 3.52, and 7.77 ng of imazapic g−1 soil were detected (15- to 20-cm depth) when the herbicide was applied at 12, 6 and 3 MBP, respectively, while no flumioxazin residues were detected at the same soil depths and times. When residues were 7.78 and 6.90 ng herbicide g−1 soil in the top 10 cm of soil for imazapic and flumioxazin, respectively, carinata exhibited at least 25% damage. Rotational intervals to avoid imazapic and flumioxazin damage to carinata should be between 6 and 12 MBP depending on soil type and environmental conditions, with longer intervals for the former than the latter.
Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical treatments applied to Palmer amaranth seeds or gynoecious plants that retain seeds to determine seed germination and quality. Treatments applied to physiologically mature Palmer amaranth seed included acifluorfen, dicamba, ethephon, flumioxazin, fomesafen, halosulfuron, linuron, metribuzin, oryzalin, pendimethalin, pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, saflufenacil, trifluralin, and 2,4-D plus crop oil concentrate applied at 1× and 2× the suggested use rates from the manufacturer. Germination was reduced by 20% when 2,4-D was used, 15% when dicamba was used, and 13% when halosulfuron and pyroxasulfone were used. Use of dicamba, ethephon, halosulfuron, oryzalin, trifluralin, and 2,4-D resulted in decreased seedling length by an average of at least 50%. Due to the observed effect of dicamba, ethephon, halosulfuron, oryzalin, trifluralin, and 2,4-D, these treatments were applied to gynoecious Palmer amaranth inflorescence at the 2× registered application rates to evaluate their effects on progeny seed. Dicamba use resulted in a 24% decrease in seed germination, whereas all other treatment results were similar to those of the control. Crush tests showed that seed viability was greater than 95%, thus dicamba did not have a strong effect on seed viability. No treatments applied to Palmer amaranth inflorescence affected average seedling length; therefore, chemical treatments did not affect the quality of seeds that germinated.