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In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
The optimal management of symptomatic tetralogy of Fallot in neonates and younger infants with unfavourable anatomy is unclear and is further constrained by resource limitations in low and middle income countries.
Retrospective medical record review of infants with tetralogy of Fallot undergoing corrective or palliative procedures between January 2016 and June 2019.
The study included 120 infants; of whom 83 underwent primary complete repair, four underwent surgical palliation, and 33 underwent catheter-based palliation, including balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (n = 18), right ventricular outflow tract stenting (n = 14), and stenting of the patent arterial duct (n = 1). Infants undergoing catheter-based procedures were younger in age (median 32 days; inter-quartile range (IQR) 7–144 versus 210 days; IQR 158–250), with lower baseline saturation (65 ± 12% versus 87 ± 7%) and had smaller pulmonary artery z-scores compared to the complete repair cohort. Follow-up was available for 31/33 (94%) infants (median 7 months [IQR 4–11]) who underwent trans-catheter palliation; 12 underwent complete repair, 10 are well, awaiting repair, eight required further palliation (catheter: 6; surgical: 2), and one died post-discharge from non-cardiac causes.
Catheter-based palliation is a safe and effective alternative in infants with tetralogy of Fallot who are at high risk for primary surgical repair.
The presence of 6s2 (5s2) lone-pair electrons on the B-site Pb (Sn) in all-inorganic and hybrid halide ABX3 perovskites distinguishes these materials from the familiar tetrahedral semiconductors traditionally employed in optoelectronics and is key to many of their appealing properties. These electrons are stereochemically active, albeit often in a hidden fashion, resulting in unusual and highly anharmonic lattice dynamics that are linked to many of the special optoelectronic properties displayed by this material class. This article describes the connections between this atypical electronic configuration and the electronic structure and lattice dynamics of these compounds. We illustrate how the lone pair leads to favorable bandwidths and band alignments, mobile holes, large ionic dielectric response, large positive thermal expansion, and even possibly defect-tolerant electronic transport. Taken together, the evidence suggests that other high-performing semiconductors may be found among compounds with lone-pair-bearing cations in high symmetry environments and a high degree of connectivity between atoms.
Universal access to abundant scientific data, and the software to analyze the data at scale, could fundamentally transform the field of materials science. Today, the materials community faces serious challenges to bringing about this data-accelerated research paradigm, including diversity of research areas within materials, lack of data standards, and missing incentives for sharing, among others. Nonetheless, the landscape is rapidly changing in ways that should benefit the entire materials research enterprise. We provide an overview of the current state of the materials data and informatics landscape, highlighting a few selected efforts that make more data freely available and useful to materials researchers.
Research in functional materials is frequently driven by a desire to make informed choices in the quest for better, more effective materials. A great deal of recent attention has been focused on the modalities of how such informed choices can themselves be made in a better, more effective manner. The examples presented here examine some of these modalities, emphasizing the nexus between new synthesis, computational design and analysis, growth in high purity forms, and finally, end-use in terms of either application or of significant property measurement. The illustrations, many drawn from the recent literature, commence with the role that theory has played, both in property prediction and concomitant materials selection, in the areas of multiferroics and topological insulators. The importance of materials quality is emphasized, using examples from observation of the fractional Quantum Hall Effect, where new science has emerged as a result of improved materials. In the area of organic electronics, prospects for advancing the field are suggested, as are future directions in nanoscience. While the examples chosen here point to developments that require a highly collaborative “systems” approach to materials, the role that serendipity plays is not ignored.
La4LiAuO8 is a stable Au3+ oxide that was recently examined as a possible model compound for the role of Au3+ in heterogeneous catalysis. Due to the paucity of thermodynamic data, the energetics of La4LiAuO8 and its likely decomposition product, LiLaO2, were investigated. The ΔHf−ox, of La4LiAuO8 and LaLiO2 are both exothermic at −187.7 ± 5.8 and −41.4 ± 9.6 kJ/mol, respectively. From the thermodynamic data, the decomposition temperature of La4LiAuO8 was calculated as either 979 ± 95 or 1331 ± 43 °C for the formation of LiLaO2 or Li2O, respectively. Thus, LiLaO2 is the expected decomposition product.
Porous metals and ceramic materials are of critical importance in catalysis, sensing, and adsorption technologies and exhibit unusual mechanical, magnetic, electrical, and optical properties compared to nonporous bulk materials. Materials with nanoscale porosity often are formed through molecular self-assembly processes that lock in a particular length scale; consider, for instance, the assembly of crystalline mesoporous zeolites with a pore size of 2–50 nm or the evolution of structural domains in block copolymers. Of recent interest has been the identification of general kinetic pattern-forming principles that underlie the formation of mesoporous materials without a locked- in length scale. When materials are kinetically locked out of thermodynamic equilibrium, temperature or chemistry can be used as a “knob” to tune their microstructure and properties. In this issue of the MRS Bulletin, we explore new porous metal and ceramic materials, which we collectively refer to as “hard” materials, formed by pattern-forming instabilities, either in the bulk or at interfaces, and discuss how such nonequilibrium processing can be used to tune porosity and properties. The focus on hard materials here involves thermal, chemical, and electrochemical processing usually not compatible with soft (for example, polymeric) porous materials and generally adds to the rich variety of routes to fabricate porous materials.
Routes to porous materials with nanoscale dimensions have been investigated. In the first example presented, porous manganese oxide has been prepared by leaching Ni metal from a nickel-manganese oxide precursor via reduction. Electron microscopy studies have revealed the presence of Ni nanoparticles on the surface, and also embedded within the porous MnO matrix. Magnetic measurements have shown exchange bias between the ferromagnetic Ni nanoparticles and the antiferromagnetic MnO phase. In the second system studied, porous nanostructures of rutile VO2 and corundum V2O3 have been prepared by reduction of amine-templated V2O5−δ nanoscrolls. The porosity of these materials has been probed by electron microscopy, N2 sorption measurements and thermogravimetric analysis.
We have examined the ability of a carefully chosen perovskite, BaCeO3, to act as a redox host for noble metals, notably Pd, in the hope of producing an “intelligent” catalyst where palladium is absorbed into the host lattice as ions under oxidative conditions and released as elemental Pd under reducing conditions. Pd-substituted perovskites BaCe1-xPdxO3-δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) were prepared by solid-state reactions in pure oxygen. The crystal structure was refined in the orthorhombic space group Pnma. Palladium was found to be driven in and out of the perovskite lattice upon repeated redox cycles by detailed XRD study. SEM/EDX revealed the formation of perovskite nanowires and nanorods when reducing Pd-substituted BaCeO3 up to 1000°C.
Epitaxial thin films of Mn3O4 and ZnMn2O4 have been grown hydrothermally on (100) and (111) MgAl2O4 substrates. Film growth was characterized as a function of pH, concentration, and time and thin film X-ray diffraction revealed that the resulting films are an epitaxial continuation of the underlying spinel lattice. Reduction of these films to MnO occurred topotactically and in the case of ZnMn2O4, resulted in mesopores aligned along the <100> directions. As the films maintain an epitaxial relationship with the substrate, the mesopores are aligned macroscopically within a single crystal lattice.
We have used precursor routes to prepare magnetic transition metal ion (tM) substituted wurtzite ZnO powders with up to 15% tM substitution (tM = Co and Mn) on the cation site. Careful magnetic studies reveal these samples show no cooperative magnetic ordering, and certainly no ferromagnetism. Instead, the nearest-neighbor coupling is actually antiferromagnetic. Modeling of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility indicates the difficulty in inducing ferromagnetism, in keeping with the results of density functional calculations. The alternate strategy of inducing dilute ferri magnetism in wide band gap spinel hosts with two cation sites has been more successful; dilute magnets based on tM substitution in spinel ZnGa2O4 seem promising, displaying magnetic hysteresis in nearly transparent samples.
We have performed Rietveld refinements on neutron and synchrotron diffraction patterns and density functional calculations on various ferroelectric lead perovskites and on α lead monoxide (litharge). These structural data have allowed to shed some light on lead stereochemistry in these compounds. In particular, we discuss the changing in the lead behaviour between the paraelectric cubic phases and the low temperature anti or ferroelectric phases in Pb2CoWO6 and Pb2MgTeO6 (both incommensurate), in Pb2MgWO6 (antiferroelectric) and in PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 (relaxor). The possible phase transition mechanisms are reviewed and the bonds are compared to those in the aperiodic structure of α-lead monoxide.
By virtue of their unique structures, fullerenes exhibit novel chemical transformations. Particularly pertinent to this article are the interesting properties exhibited by fullerenes in the solid state. These molecules are spherical or near-spherical in shape. Molecules with high point-group symmetry, which are not bound strongly in the solid state, tend to crystallize into structures with long-range periodicity of the molecular centers of mass, but the molecular orientations are random or even dynamically disordered. When dynamically disordered, the
molecules rotate about some preferred axis. C60 and C70 satisfy the criteria for such orientationally disordered solids and exhibit rich phase behavior in the solid state. Since C60 has high electron affinity, it forms anion salts with alkali and alkaline-earth metals as well as with strong organic donor molecules. With tetrakis dimethylaminoethylene (TDAE), which is a very powerful electron donor, C60 forms a 1:1 solid that is ferromagnetic. C60-TDAE is the molecular organic ferromagnet with the highest Tc (of 16 K) known to date. Some of the alkali and alkaline-earth fullerides, on the other hand, show superconductivity, with transition temperatures going up to 33K. We shall briefly examine some of these solid-state properties.
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