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Antiquarian and modern excavations at Castor, Cambs., have been taking place since the seventeenth century. The site, which lies under the modern village, has been variously described as a Roman villa, a guild centre and a palace, while Edmund Artis working in the 1820s termed it the ‘Praetorium’. The Roman buildings covered an area of 3.77 ha (9.4 acres) and appear to have had two main phases, the latter of which formed a single unified structure some 130 by 90 m. This article attempts to draw together all of the previous work at the site and provide a comprehensive plan, a set of suggested dates, and options on how the remains could be interpreted.
As the performance requirements of ceramic components are refined, the demands placed on the materials used in their processing also become more stringent. For example, in advanced ceramic packaging applications, it is increasingly important that the organic polymers used as binders be capable of degradation and removal at low temperatures and in non-oxidizing atmospheres. This paper examines the chemistry that can occur during two fundamental stages of the binder removal process, (1) the breakdown of the C–C backbone of the polymer during pyrolysis, and (2) the interaction of the small molecules that are produced during pyrolysis with ceramic surfaces. The work has focused on acrylate and methacrylate systems, both because this is an important family of polymers for applications in tape casting, and because there is a relatively extensive literature on their pyrolysis chemistry.
A figurine unique for Roman Britain is described and analysed, showing that its attributes conflate those of several classical deities, all of whom might have been associated in the mind of the donor with the Romano-Celtic goddess, Senuna.
We give a new proof that a finitely generated congruence-distributive variety has finitely determined syntactic congruences (or, equivalently, term finite principal congruences), and show that the same does not hold for finitely generated congruence-permutable varieties, even under the additional assumption that the variety is residually very finite.
The tripeptide glutathione is proposed to be protective against a number of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, there have been few studies of plasma glutathione levels in humans and in those studies the numbers of participants have been very small. In an exploratory analysis the determinants of plasma total glutathione (GSHt) were investigated in a group of 100 volunteers aged 18–61 years in Atlanta, Georgia, USA during June and July 1989. Data on demographic and health-related factors were collected by interview and plasma GSHt was measured using a recently modified laboratory method. The mean concentration of plasma GSHt for all 100 participants was 761 μg/l, with a standard deviation of 451 μg/l, a range of 86–2889 μg/1 and a median of 649 μg/l. Men had significantly higher levels of plasma GSHt than women (924 v. 692 μg/l; P = 0·006). Seventh-day Adventists participating in the present study had higher plasma GSHt levels than other subgroups defined by race and/or religion. Among Seventh-day Adventists consumption of a vegetarian diet was associated with increased plasma GSHt concentration (P = 0·002). Plasma GSHt levels also appeared to vary by race, but relationships with race could not be clearly disassociated from relationships with religion. Among white participants plasma GSHt concentration decreased with age in women but increased with age in men (P = 0·05). Few other factors were associated with plasma GSHt concentration, although use of oral contraceptives (P = 0·10) was somewhat associated with decreased plasma GSHt levels. These findings suggest that plasma GSHt levels may vary with several demographic and health-related attributes and support the need for further research on this potentially important disease-preventive compound.
In 1968 a fine and extensive group of Roman surgical and medical instruments (PL. XI) was purchased by the British Museum from a London antiquity dealer. With one or perhaps two exceptions (Nos. 39, 33 below) there is little doubt that they comprise a surgeon's instrumentarium which includes many normal types but also some very rare objects: the three catheters are the largest set of such instruments to be found; the speculum is only the third complete provenanced example of its type, while the bone chisels and sharp spoon have few known parallels; the double blunt hook is one of the finest examples of this rare class of object; the handled needles significantly increase the number of such specialist instruments; the small tanged cautery is one of the very few survivors of a type of instrument that was extremely common in Roman surgery: and the segmented form of one of the medicine boxes is as yet unparallelled.
In 1980, during British Museum excavations at Stonea Grange, Cambs., a group of metal finds collected over a number of years in the fields surrounding the site, were shown to the writer. They included two examples (FIG. 1) of an enigmatic class of small cast bronze object first discussed more than sixty years ago by Reginald Smith. They are still ill-understood, but not uncommon; the present catalogue, certainly incomplete, contains 99 examples.