Genetically modified (GM) maize expressing the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize) is the only GM crop planted commercially in the European Union (EU). Cultivation in accordance with Directive 2001/18/EC demands post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) to ensure the detection and prevention of adverse effects on the environment possibly deriving from commercial cultivation. Based on a seminar organized in Berlin, Germany, in April 2008 by the EU-funded Biosafenet project, the present paper reflects on experiences and hurdles faced during the implementation of PMEM for Bt maize. It reviews and reconsiders PMEM programs of Bt maize in view of existing experiences from cultivation, current monitoring activities initiated by Member States and applicants, proposed monitoring strategies and methods as well as potential environmental impacts of cultivation. Future challenges will arise from large-scale and cumulative cultivation of various events. This will demand optimized organization structures for data collation and integration to support further decision-making and management.