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Extensive settlement activity at the Bronze Age site of Mokarta in western Sicily has previously been inferred, but the extent and condition of its subsurface remains have never been established. The authors use geophysical prospection, historical and modern remote-sensing data and soil chemistry to identify previously undocumented structures and activity areas extending beyond those exposed by previous excavations. This exercise not only has implications for the multifaceted social organisation of Late Bronze Age communities in Sicily, but, more generally, demonstrates how minimally invasive investigative techniques combined with existing data can reveal subsurface archaeological sites and the impact of post-depositional processes.
The chapter discusses the current backlash against transnational law, as exemplified in the Brexit discussions underway in the United Kingdom. That backlash, it is argued, is based on an irrational nostalgic desire for the past: there is no return to the nation state as it existed. But much contemporary transnational law suffers from a nostalgia of its own—nostalgia for the period, some sixty years ago, when transnational law was first developed. That time, the post-war area, is as irreversibly passé as is the nation state, and transnational law, it is argued, can no longer rest on the ideas of its birth. Instead, the chapter advocates for a renewal of transnational law based on a new “PRIDE.” That PRIDE consists of a number of elements: politicization of law, redistribution as challenge, inclusion of outsiders (including opponents), democratization of law making and adjudication instead of exaggerated trust in experts or seemingly natural consequences, and energization and emotion to counter the emotionality of opponents.
We report a novel strategy to render stainless steel (SS) a more versatile material that is suitable to be used as the substrate for preparing electrodes for efficient hydrogen evolution by interface engineering. Our strategy involves the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) as the interface material on the surface of SS. We optimized the procedure to prepare CNTs/SS and demonstrate a higher activity of the CNTs/SS prepared at 700 °C for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) when compared to samples prepared at other temperatures. This can be attributed to the higher number of defects and the higher content of pyrrolic N obtained at this temperature. Our strategy offers a new approach to employ SS as a substrate for the preparation of highly efficient electrodes and has the potential to be widely used in electrochemistry.
Resilience is a cross-disciplinary concept that is relevant for understanding the sustainability of the social and environmental conditions in which we live. Most research normatively focuses on building or strengthening resilience, despite growing recognition of the importance of breaking the resilience of, and thus transforming, unsustainable social-ecological systems. Undesirable resilience (cf. lock-ins, social-ecological traps), however, is not only less explored in the academic literature, but its understanding is also more fragmented across different disciplines. This disparity can inhibit collaboration among researchers exploring interdependent challenges in sustainability sciences. In this article, we propose that the term lock-in may contribute to a common understanding of undesirable resilience across scientific fields.
Perovskite chalcogenides are gaining substantial interest as an emerging class of semiconductors for optoelectronic applications. High-quality samples are of vital importance to examine their inherent physical properties. We report the successful crystal growth of the model system, BaZrS3 and its Ruddlesden–Popper phase Ba3Zr2S7 by a flux method. X-ray diffraction analyses showed the space group of Pnma with lattice constants of a = 7.056(3) Å, b = 9.962(4) Å, and c = 6.996(3) Å for BaZrS3 and P42/mnm with a = 7.071(2) Å, b = 7.071(2) Å, and c = 25.418(5) Å for Ba3Zr2S7. Rocking curves with full width at half maximum of 0.011° for BaZrS3 and 0.027° for Ba3Zr2S7 were observed. Pole figure analysis, scanning transmission electron microscopy images, and electron diffraction patterns also establish the high quality of the grown crystals. The octahedral tilting in the corner-sharing octahedral network is analyzed by extracting the torsion angles.
Graph-based design languages offer a promising approach to address several major issues in engineering, e. g. the laborious manual transfer between CAD and CAE. Such languages generate a digital meta- or system model storing all relevant information about a design and feed this into any relevant CAE tool as needed to simulate and test the impact of any design variation on the resulting product performance. As this can be automated in digital compilers to perform systematic design variation for an almost infinite amount of parameters, such graph-based languages are a powerful means to generate viable design alternatives and thus permit fast evaluations.
To leverage the full potential of graph-based design languages, possibilities are presented to expand their applicability into the domain of product functions. This possibilities allow to cohesively link integrative function modelling to product structures. This intends to close the gap between the early, abstract stages and the systematic, concrete design generation and validation with relevant CAE tools. In this paper, the IFM Framework was selected as integrated function model to be linked with the graph- based design languages.
When France and Belgium banned face veils in 2010 and 2011, they were the first European countries to do so in a comprehensive matter. Now Austria has its own ban, Denmark is on track to have one too, and several other countries are toying with the idea. Such bans are often considered incompatible with the rights of veil wearers (especially Muslim women). Less prominent is the question whether such bans are incompatible with the modern state.
Such a critique can be grounded on the work of the leading German constitutional law scholar Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde and his famous dictum, according to which “[t]he liberal, secularized state draws its life from preconditions it cannot itself guarantee.” For Böckenförde, this means that headscarves, a different type of veil, cannot be banned—not because this would violate a woman's rights, but because it would undermine the very character of the state itself.
The article transposes this argument from the German discourse over headscarves to the European discourse over face veils. It demonstrates the potential of Böckenförde's dictum for the face veil debate, but also its limitations.
KMOS, the “K-Band Multi-Object Spectrometer”, was built by a British-German consortium as a second generation instrument for the ESO Paranal Observatory. It is available to the user community since its successful commissioning in 2013 (Sharples et al. 2013). As a multi-object integral field spectrometer for the near infrared, KMOS offers 24 deployable IFUs of 2.8x2.8 arcsec and 14x14 spatial pixels each, which can either be placed individually within a 7.2 arcmin field of view or combined in a Mosaic mode in order to map contiguous fields on sky. The instrument covers the whole range of NIR atmospheric windows (0.8. . .2.5μm) with 5 spectral bands and a resolution of R ≈ 3000. . .4000.
Although the main science driver for KMOS was to enable the study of galaxy formation and evolution through multiplexed observations of high-redshift galaxies, KMOS also already exhibited its tremendous potential for the spectroscopy of massive stars: A quantitative study of 27 RSGs in NGC 300 (Gazak et al. 2015) proves its applicability for the spectroscopy of individual stars even beyond the Local Group. A Mosaic observation of the Galactic centre (Feldmeier-Krause et al. 2015) demonstrates how spectra of early-type stars can be extracted from a contiguous field. Other applications include (but need not be limited to) velocity determinations of globular cluster stars, observations of jets/outflows of high mass protostars, or contiguous mapping of star-forming regions.
We therefore aim at presenting the excellent capabilities of KMOS to a wider community and indicate potential applications.
Philip Jessup would not be pleased. Exactly sixty years after he published his groundbreaking book on Transnational Law, a majority of voters in the United Kingdom decided they wanted none of that. By voting for the UK to leave the European Union, they rejected what may well be called the biggest and most promising project of transnational law. Indeed, the European Union (including its predecessor, the European Economic Community), is nearly as old Jessup's book. Both are products of the same time. That invites speculation that goes beyond the immediate effects of Brexit: Is the time of transnational law over? Or can transnational law be renewed and revived?
Some sixteen years ago, on the occasion one of many symposia on the possibility of a new Restatement on Conflict of Laws to replace the much-derided Second Restatement, Mathias Reimann suggested that a new Restatement should focus on the requirements of what he called “the international age.” Conflict of laws is increasingly international, he pointed out. This remains true today—just recall that three of the four recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions on personal jurisdiction concerned international conflicts. A new Restatement must take that into account. Reimann formulated three very sensible wishes for drafters of a new Restatement: they should consider every rule and principle they formulate with international disputes in mind; they should work comparatively; and they should include foreign advisers.
We have obtained high spectral resolution (R ≈ 9000), integral field observations of the three spiral galaxies NGC 3521, NGC 7217 and NGC 7331 using the new fiber-based Integral Field Unit instrument VIRUS-W at the 2.7 m telescope of the McDonald Observatory in Texas. Our data allow us to revisit previous claims of counter rotation in these objects. A detailed kinematic decomposition of NGC 7217 shows that no counter rotating stellar component is present. We find that NGC 7217 hosts a low dispersion, rotating disk that is embedded in a high velocity dispersion stellar halo or bulge that is co-rotating with the disk. Due to the very different velocity dispersions (≈ 20 km s−1 vs. 150 km s−1) , we are further able to perform a Lick index analysis on both components separately which indicates that the two stellar populations are clearly separated in (Mgb,〈Fe〉) space. The velocities and dispersions of the faster component are very similar to those of the interstellar gas as measured from the [O iii] emission. Morphological evidence of active star formation in this component further suggests that NGC 7217 may be in the process of (re)growing a disk inside a more massive and higher dispersion stellar halo.
We have collected optical integral field spectroscopic data for M31 with the spectrograph VIRUS-W that result in kinematic maps of unprecedented detail. These reveal the presence of two kinematically distinct gas components.