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The basal ganglia (BG) including the caudate nucleus are well known for their motor functions. The BG nuclei are anatomically and functionally associated with each of the frontal-striatal-thalamic-frontal circuits or loops. The caudate nucleus assumes the shape of a comet, curving along the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle. The caudate nucleus receives its blood supply mainly through the deep penetrators arising from the anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs) and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) although there are individual differences. The major risk factors for caudate nucleus infarcts are: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarct, and cigarette smoking. As caudate nucleus infarcts can develop from any stroke mechanisms including lipohyalinosis, branch atheromatous disease, large artery atherothrombosis, or embolism, treatment of patients with caudate nucleus infarcts depends on the underlying stroke mechanism. Caudate nucleus hemorrhages account for approximately 7% of all intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) and are caused by rupture of penetrating arteries.
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a serious complication of assisted reproduction techniques using in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). Its etiology has still not yet been fully resolved. Human chorionic gonadotrophin, administered exogenously as well as produced endogenously during pregnancy, is responsible for the onset of OHSS, and high levels of estradiol appear to worsen the condition. In this case series, the course of mild to severe OHSS was evaluated in 19 intact twin pregnancies after IVF/ICSI. Another serious complication associated with OHSS is thromboembolic events. In these cases, the pregnancy can be protected through anticoagulation treatment, but there may be exceptions to this. This series includes a case of bilateral thrombosis of the internal and external jugular veins in the 7th gestational week in a twin pregnancy after OHSS and ICSI, with termination of the pregnancy in the 9th gestational week due to progressive thrombosis during anticoagulation therapy.
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