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Tendencies to attend to threatening cues in the environment and to interpret ambiguous situations with negative/hostile intent maintain and may even precipitate internalizing and externalizing problems in young people with a history of maltreatment. Challenging maladaptive information-processing styles using cognitive bias modification (CBM) training may reduce symptoms.
To investigate the acceptability of CBM training in nine young people attending alternate education provision units in the UK, and 10 young people living in out-of-home care institutions in Nepal with a history of maltreatment.
CBM training consisted of five sessions of training over a 2-week period; each training session consisted of one module targeting attention biases and one module targeting interpretation biases for threat. A feedback form administered after training measured acceptability. Pre- and post-intervention measures of internalizing and externalizing symptoms were also taken.
Most young people (89%) found the training helpful and 84% found the training materials realistic. There were reductions in many symptom domains, but with individual variation. Although limited by the lack of a control condition, we established generalizability of acceptability across participants from two cultural settings.
Replication of these findings in larger feasibility randomized controlled trials with measures of attention and interpretation bias before and after intervention, are needed to assess the potential of CBM in reducing anxiety symptoms and its capacity to engage targeted mechanisms.
This paper highlights unique sites in Ladakh, India, investigated during our 2016 multidisciplinary pathfinding expedition to the region. We summarize our scientific findings and the site's potential to support science exploration, testing of new technologies and science protocols within the framework of astrobiology research. Ladakh has several accessible, diverse, pristine and extreme environments at very high altitudes (3000–5700 m above sea level). These sites include glacial passes, sand dunes, hot springs and saline lake shorelines with periglacial features. We report geological observations and environmental characteristics (of astrobiological significance) along with the development of regolith-landform maps for cold high passes. The effects of the diurnal water cycle on salt deliquescence were studied using the ExoMars Mission instrument mockup: HabitAbility: Brines, Irradiance and Temperature (HABIT). It recorded the existence of an interaction between the diurnal water cycle in the atmosphere and salts in the soil (which can serve as habitable liquid water reservoirs). Life detection assays were also tested to establish the best protocols for biomass measurements in brines, periglacial ice-mud and permafrost melt water environments in the Tso-Kar region. This campaign helped confirm the relevance of clays and brines as interest targets of research on Mars for biomarker preservation and life detection.
With increasing interest in natural products of plant origin for medicinal and health care benefits there is added emphasis on the quality of the source raw material. In most cases the vegetative tissues and organs are the source of the required raw material. However, such tissues/organs may become infested/susceptible to many diseases causing deterioration of the quality of the desired economic product and loss of genetic resources. Considerable progress has been made with respect to the identification of disease causing organisms, and their pathogenic impact at organ, cellular and biochemical level. This review focuses on various diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and phytoplasmas threatening the yield, biomass, bioactive potential of medicinal and aromatic plants of the sub-tropics. Several studies suggest that management of diseases through biological measures is more effective to check multiple diseases. Necessary management strategies for efficient disease management to realize quality raw material and enhanced metabolite productive potential have been outlined.
The oak tasar silkworm, Antheraea proylei J., was reared on the foliage of Quercus serrata Thunb., Q. griffithii Hook. fil. and Thoms, and Q. dealbata Hook, fil and Thoms. under controlled indoor conditions to assess the suitability of these plants as feed for the silkworm. Relative growth rate of the silkworm was lowest on Q. dealbata, perhaps due to the relatively low level of crude protein and high level of crude fibre in this species. These results show that Q. dealbata is a nutritionally inferior food plant in comparison with Q. serrata and Q. griffithii.
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