This report presents an overview of studies on the structures of cellulose. After presenting a brief historical perspective, the report reviews diffractometrically based structural models and then describes recent developments based on models that are consistent with both diffractometric and spectroscopic observations. The primary impetus for development of these models was provided by Raman and 13C NMR (CP-MAS) spectral results that could not be rationalized on the basis of classical structural models, which are constrained by diffractometric data alone. The structures derived from integrating the spectral information into the data base, which constrain the models, represent relatively small but very significant departures from those structures derived on the basis of diffractometry alone. In addition to rationalizing all the structurally sensitive information, the new models provide a basis for complementary use of spectroscopic and diffractometric methods to monitor variations of the states of aggregation of celluloses with source and history. Thus, it is now possible to investigate the effects of different processing variables, which are important in industrial practice, on both secondary and tertiary levels of structure in celluloses. These levels of structure have a major influence on the material properties of commercial celluloses, yet adequate characterization of these levels has been quite elusive.