To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There is an increasing need for integrating high dielectric constant ceramic thin film components in organic and 3D IC packages to lower the power-supply impedance at high frequencies and supply noise-free power to the ICs. Sol-gel approach is very attractive for high density capacitors because of its ability to precisely control the composition of the films and the ease of introducing dopants to engineer the dielectric properties such as breakdown voltages and DC leakage characteristics. Thin films on copper foils lend themselves to organic package integration with standard foil lamination techniques used in package build-up processes. However, fabrication of thin film barium titanate on copper foils is generally affected by process incompatibility during crystallization in reducing atmospheres, leading to poor crystallization, oxygen vacancies and copper diffusion through the film that degrades the electrical properties.
This paper focuses on the dielectric properties and electrical reliability of thin films on copper foils. Thin film (300-400 nm) embedded capacitors with capacitance density of 2 μF/cm2, low leakage current and high breakdown voltage were fabricated via sol-gel technology and foil lamination. To lower the leakage current, the chemical composition was altered by incorporating – 1.) Excess barium 2.) Acceptor dopants such as Mn. Both approaches lowered the leakage current compared to that of pure barium titanate. SEM analysis showed enhanced densification and refined grain structure with chemistry modification. The films showed good stability in leakage currents at 150 C with an applied field strength of 100 kV/cm, demonstrating the electrical reliability of these films.
In India, there is a lack of information about the adequate daily dose of vitamin D3 supplementation in school children. Hence, we undertook this study to evaluate the adequacy and efficacy of different doses of vitamin D3 in schoolchildren. A total of 1008 vitamin D-deficient (VDD) children, aged 6–16 years with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels <50nmol/l, were cluster randomised into three groups (A-344, B-341 and C-232) for supplementation (600, 1000 and 2000 IU daily) of vitamin D3 under supervision for 6 months. Of the 1008 subjects who completed the study, 938 (93 %) were compliant. Baseline and post-supplementation fasting blood and urine samples were evaluated for Ca, phosphates, alkaline phosphatase, 25(OH)D and parathormone and urine Ca:creatinine ratio. The mean age of the subjects was 11·7 (sd 2·4) years, and the overall mean baseline serum 25(OH)D level was 24·3 (SD 9·5)nmol/l. Post-supplementation rise in serum 25(OH)D in compliant group was maximum with 2000 IU (70·0 (SD 30·0)nmol/l), followed by 1000 IU (46·8 (SD 22·5)nmol/l) and 600 IU (36·5 (SD 18·5)nmol/l), and serum 25(OH)D levels of ≥50nmol/l were achieved in 71·5, 81·8 and 92·9 % by groups A, B and C, respectively. Secondary hyperparathyroidism decreased from 31·7 to 8·4 % post-supplementation. Two participants developed hypercalciuria, but none developed hypercalcaemia. Children with VDD benefit maximum with the daily supplementation of 2000 IU of vitamin D3. Whether recommendations of 400 IU/d by Indian Council of Medical Research or 600 IU by Indian Academy of Pediatrics or Institute of Medicine would suffice to achieve vitamin D sufficiency in children with VDD remains debatable.
The paper describes the design and development of a low profile wide scanned conformal active 1 × 32 phased array antenna for Ku-band SATCOM applications. The realized antenna is diagonally polarized and covers full transmit frequency band (i.e. 13.75–14.5 GHz) of Ku band SATCOM. All the developed sub-systems of the antenna, i.e. conformal radiating array, conformal transmit module, manifold network, and beam steering unit are described. The VSWR of the antenna is better than 1.65 over the complete transmit frequency band. The antenna has the beam steering capability of ±60° in the array plane. Designed antenna is best suited for airborne applications, where antenna profile contributes considerable aero drag and RCS to the host platform.
The possible association between teat morphometric traits and subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy buffaloes was studied. Teat morphometric parameters, i.e. teat shape (bottle, conical, cylindrical, and others), teat-end shape (flat, round, and pointed), teat length (TL), teat diameter (TD), and teat-end to floor distance were measured before milking, but after proper milk let-down, in clinically healthy buffaloes (47 Murrah and 34 Nili-Ravi breeds). Subclinical mastitis was defined on the basis of bacteriology and somatic cell count (SCC) of quarter foremilk samples. A high proportion of cylindrical teats (40%) and pointed teat-ends (64·4%) was observed. Hind teats were longer and thicker than fore teats (P < 0·05). A significant breed effect was found with respect to teat shape, length and diameter (P < 0·05). Teats were mostly cylindrical (43·3 vs. 35·4%) and conical (34·2 vs. 30·8%) shaped, smaller (mean 8·2 vs. 9·5 cm) and thinner (mean 3·3 vs. 3·6 cm) in the Murrah breed compared with the Nili-Ravi breed. Teats that had ‘other’ shapes and were longer, wider, and placed closer to the floor were more associated with SCM (P < 0·05). Mean SCC was significantly higher (P < 0·05) in Nili-Ravi buffaloes, teat shapes classified as ‘others’, and quarters with SCM. Teat morphometric traits seem to be associated with indicators of udder health in buffaloes, thus, their inclusion in breeding programmes for selection against undesirable dairy type traits may be of value in reducing susceptibility to intramammary infections in Indian buffaloes.
This paper follows the progress made in India for research and farmer adoption of conservation agriculture (CA) since the publication of Erenstein (2012), who contested the idea that zero-till (ZT) establishment of wheat in rice–wheat systems could be further developed into full CA systems. Data presented in this paper show that research has successfully found solutions for both the wheat and rice phases of the rice–wheat systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in the past 8 years. It shows that by finding solutions in both the rice and wheat phases, yields, water use efficiency and profits increased, while labour needs reduced. Indian scientists have also confirmed these benefits in participatory on-farm research in various locations, both east and west regions of the IGP. Farmers see for themselves through experimentation that they get higher yields with less cost and with more efficient use of inputs and water. A key factor has been the development of improved seed drills with the help of Indian private sector manufacturers of agricultural equipment. Indian scientists have also successfully conducted CA research on several other crops and in other regions besides the IGP. The paper shows that it is better to introduce parts of the CA management practices in a step-wise fashion first, rather than introducing the entire package at once since farmers first have to test and evaluate a new technology to understand how it benefits them personally before they will adopt it. The paper concludes that in the rice–wheat systems of South Asia, adoption of CA is indeed possible to achieve although it is still a work in progress. CA is a complex technology package and it takes time to overcome all of the contested issues mentioned in Erenstein (2012).
Information on density and abundance of globally threatened species such as tigers Panthera tigris is essential for effective conservation as well as to evaluate the success of conservation programmes. We monitored tigers in Parsa Widlife Reserve, Nepal, using camera traps, in 2013, 2014 and 2016. Once believed to be a sink for tigers from adjacent Chitwan National Park, Parsa now provides a new hope for tigers. Spatially explicit capture–recapture analysis over 3 survey years revealed an increase in tiger density from 0.78 to 1.38 individuals per 100 km2 from 2013 to 2016. The tiger abundance was estimated to be seven (6–13), 11 (10–16) and 17 (17–20) in 2013, 2014 and 2016, respectively. Resettlement of communities from the core area, reduced anthropogenic pressure, and improved security have made Parsa Wildlife Reserve a suitable habitat for tigers. Tiger abundance increased considerably within a 5 km radius of the evacuated village sites, from two in 2013 to eight in 2014 and 10 in 2016. Population turnover has remained moderate (< 30% per year), with persistence of individuals in multiple years. Dispersing tigers from Chitwan's source population accounted for a large portion (c. 40%) of the tigers detected in Parsa. Conservation efforts along with annual monitoring should be continued in Parsa to sustain the increase and monitor the persistence of tigers. The Chitwan–Parsa complex should be managed as a single ecological unit for conserving the Endangered tiger and other wide-ranging species.
Earthquakes are a major natural calamity with pervasive effects on human life and nature. Similar effects are mimicked by man-made disasters such as fuel crises and power outages in developing countries. Natural and man-made disasters can cause intangible human suffering and often leave scars of lifelong psychosocial damage. Lessons from these disasters are frequently not implemented. The main objective of this study was to review the effects of the 2015 earthquakes, fuel crisis, and power outages on the health services of Nepal and formulate recommendations for the future. The impacts of earthquakes on health can be divided into immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects. Power outages and fuel crises have health hazards at all stages. It is imperative to understand the temporal effects of earthquakes, because the major needs soon after the earthquake (emergency care) are vastly different from long-term needs such as rehabilitation and psychosocial support. In Nepal, the inadequate and nearly nonexistent specialized health care at the peripheral level claimed many lives during the earthquakes and left many people disproportionately injured. Preemptive strategies such as mobile critical care units at primary health centers, intensive care training for health workers, and alternative plans for emergency care must be prioritized. Similarly, infrastructural damage led to poor sanitation, and alternative plans for temporary settlements (water supply, food, settlements logistics, space for temporary settlements) must be in place where the danger of disease outbreak is imminent. While much of these strategies are implementable and are often set as priorities, long-term effects of earthquakes such as physical and psychosocial supports are often overlooked. The burden of psychosocial stresses, including depression and physical disabilities, needs to be prioritized by facilitating human resources for mental health care and rehabilitation. In addition, inclusion of mental health and rehabilitation facilities in government health care services of Nepal needs to be prioritized. Similarly, power outages and fuel crises affect health care disproportionately. In the current context where permanent solutions may not be possible, mitigating health hazards, especially cold chain maintenance for essential medicines and continuation of life-saving procedures, are mandatory and policies to regulate all health care services must be undertaken. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:625–632)
This paper presents a high gain, wideband circularly polarized (CP) antenna. High gain of the antenna is achieved by employing a frequency selective surface (FSS) as a reflector. The antenna is a coplanar waveguide-fed structure with a modified L-shaped radiating patch. The unit element of the FSS is formed by connecting two modified dipoles at an angle of 90°. The antenna with reflector has a measured impedance bandwidth of 74.3% (2.2–4.8 GHz) and a 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW) of 62% (2.2–4.18 GHz). The maximum boresight gain of the proposed antenna with reflector is 7.1 dB at 3.4 GHz. The radiation patterns of the antenna with the FSS are also measured and compared with simulated patterns. The various aspects of effect of FSS on CP antenna performance are also discussed.
An ultra-wideband (UWB) slot antenna for diversity applications is introduced. The overall structure of the antenna consists of two similar coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed stepped rectangular slots placed in an orthogonal position. The slots are asymmetric with respect to their placement in the ground plane. The CPW feeds are double stepped and terminated on hexagonal patches for better impedance matching. A wide impedance bandwidth (measured) from 3 to 12 GHz with an isolation better than 15 dB is obtained with this antenna. To improve the isolation, the design is modified and an I-shaped slot strip is introduced between the two slot antennas. With this, the isolation is brought about 25 dB of most of the band, while the impedance bandwidth remains the same (2.8–12 GHz for port 1, measured and 2.9–12 GHz for port 2, measured). The far-field radiation patterns are also measured and a peak gain of about 5 dBi is obtained. Finally, the diversity parameters such as envelope correlation coefficient and capacity loss are calculated and found to have low values. The antenna is expected to be useful for UWB diversity applications with good isolation.
In this paper, a microstrip fed, L-shape slot antenna for dual polarization is proposed. The two arms of the slot generate electric fields of orthogonal polarizations. By properly sectioning the slot and the feed line, ultra wideband (UWB) behavior is obtained. The measured impedance bandwidth (S11< −10 dB) is more than 8.6 GHz (112%) and 8.2 GHz (104%) for Port 1 and Port 2, respectively. The measured isolation is better than 25 dB over most of the band. The aperture field distribution justifies the dual polarized nature. A modified version which implements a band-notch over 5.1–5.85 GHz wireless local area network (WLAN) band is also presented. With a compact, single substrate design, the antenna can be useful in MIMO transmission systems, polarimetric UWB radar, high performance microwave imaging, and other future wireless communications devices.
A compact slot antenna for high-gain ultra wideband applications is presented. The slot is asymmetrically cut in the ground plane and is a combination of two rectangles. A hexagonal patch with two stepped coplanar waveguide-feed is used to excite the slot. The capacitive reactance of the hexagonal patch is neutralized by the inductive reactance created by the asymmetric slot and results into wider impedance matching. The measured impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 11.85 GHz (2.9–14.75 GHz). The radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are found to be omni-directional in the H-plane and bi-directional in the E-plane. To enhance the gain of the antenna, a compact three-layer frequency selective surface (FSS) is used as a reflector. The overall thickness of the FSS is 3.5 mm. There is 4–5 dBi improvement in antenna gain after application of the FSS. The measured and simulated results are in good agreement.
To maximize heterosis, it is important to understand the genetic diversity of germplasm and associate useful phenotypic traits such as fertility restoration for hybrid rice breeding. The objectives of the present study were to characterize genetic diversity within a set of rice germplasm groups using coefficient of parentage (COP) values and 58 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for 124 genotypes having different attributes such as resistance/tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. These lines were also used for identifying prospective restorers and maintainers for wild abortive-cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line. The mean COP value for all the lines was 0.11, indicating that the genotypes do not share common ancestry. The SSR analysis generated a total of 268 alleles with an average of 4.62 alleles per locus. The mean polymorphism information content value was 0.53, indicating that the markers selected were highly polymorphic. Grouping based on COP analysis revealed three major clusters pertaining to the indica, tropical japonica and japonica lines. A similar grouping pattern with some variation was also observed for the SSR markers. Fertility restoration phenotype based on the test cross of the 124 genotypes with a CMS line helped identify 23 maintainers, 58 restorers and 43 genotypes as either partial maintainers or partial restorers. This study demonstrates that COP analysis along with molecular marker analysis might encourage better organization of germplasm diversity and its use in hybrid rice breeding. Potential restorers identified in the study can be used for breeding high-yielding stress-tolerant medium-duration rice hybrids, while maintainers would prove useful for developing new rice CMS lines.
The making of the Punjabi society, a frontier society, for the last 3,000 years has been a fascinating story of complex paradoxes. If the Punjab served as a theatre of warfare, it has also been an abode of sages, seers and sant poets. Perpetual political and ideological contestation did not necessarily close the doors to meditative contemplations. Even if the established religions, including the new ones, could not avoid sectarian manifestations, the universal spirituality kept the doors open for egalitarian inclusiveness cutting across all divisive lines. If the rise of Sikhism as a new religious ideology was a popular expression of egalitarian urges and came to offer respectable space to the untouchables from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, it also degenerated to Brahmanical caste praxis by the mid-nineteenth century. Meanwhile, the Dalit sant poets, as part of the tradition, offer a seemingly paradoxical response of devotion and dissent. We have four major Punjabi Dalit poets emerging from the last quarter of the seventeenth century to the first quarter of the twentieth century who were soaked in the contemplative world of knowledge and spirituality, while seeking an egalitarian and just society. The Punjabi Dalit literary tradition begins with Bhai Jaita alias Jeevan Singh (c. 1655–1704), who became part of the guru's household as he had carried the severed head of Guru Teg Bahadur from Delhi to Anandpur, and in his late years, composed a devotional epic poem, Sri Gur Katha, around Guru Gobind Singh's life at the turn of the eighteenth century.
In this, the third of a trilogy of articles for LIM written by Raj Kumar Bhardwaj, the author addresses the move from print to digital legal information within the Indian judicial system. He describes briefly the historical development of the legal system and the enormous backlog of cases that are pending throughout the court structure, before turning attention to the role of ICT in the legal system and the moves under way to create a more efficient electronic administration for the judiciary in India.
Strawberry is rich in health as well as bioactive compounds, and
benefits resulting from the use of natural products rich in bioactive
substances are receiving increased interest from the pharmaceutical,
food and cosmetic industries. Materials and methods.
Twenty-two cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria ×
ananassa Duch.) grown under a temperate ecosystem
were screened for ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, flavonoids,
anthocyanins and antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP assays).
The phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent using
gallic acid as the standard. Antioxidant activity was determined
in terms of DPPH and FRAP assays and expressed as ascorbic acid
equivalent. Total anthocyanins and total flavonoid content were
determined using a colorimetric method. Titratable acidity (citric
acid) was determined by the titration method. The average data of
two years was analyzed using SAS 9.2 software. Results and discussion.
Significant differences in the health and bioactive compounds were
detected among the cultivars. The range of ascorbic acid of the
tested samples was (51.03 to 89.40) mg·100 g–1 fresh weight. Titratable
acidity varied between 0.73% and 1.44%; however, total anthocyanins ranged
between (28.24 and 43.32) mg cyanidin-3-glucoside Eq·100 g–1 fresh
weight. Total phenols varied from (380.10 to 888.10) mg gallic acid
Eq·100 g–1 and total flavonoids from (31.26 to 55.16) mg catechin
Eq·100 g–1. The total antioxidant activity ranged between (203.13 and
471.10) mg ascorbic acid Eq·100 g–1 fresh weight for DPPH, and between (326.06
and 701.13) mg ascorbic acid Eq·100 g–1 fresh weight for FRAP. Total
phenols, DPPH and FRAP showed close association; however, PCA clearly
categorized the selected cultivars into two broad groups.
All of the diverse cultivars were clustered into two clusters which could
be exploited for future qualitative breeding programs based on average cluster
distance and can act as gene sources for making health foods. Conclusion.
The importance of our findings would be significant for farmers,
breeders, consumers and industries concerning food quality, disease
prevention and healthcare.