The advent of neuroimaging has allowed clinicians to improve clinico-anatomical correlations in stroke patients. Arterial trunks supplying the brainstem include: the vertebral artery, basilar artery, anterior and posterior spinal arteries, posterior inferior cerebellar artery, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, superior cerebellar artery, posterior cerebral artery, and anterior choroidal artery. The arterial supply of the medulla oblongata comes from the vertebral arteries that form the middle rami of the lateral medullary fossa, the posterior inferior cerebellar artery that gives rise to the inferior rami of the lateral medullary fossa, and the anterior and posterior spinal arteries. Different arterial trunks supply blood to the pons, including the vertebral arteries, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, superior cerebellar artery, and basilar artery. The leptomeningeal arteries consist of the terminal branches of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries forming an anastomotic network on the surface of the hemispheres.