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The paper reports on the fabrication of electrical isolation for planar AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor using Al double-implantation. The implantation was performed using Al+ ions with energies of 800 keV and 300 keV with doses of 1.5×1013 ion/cm2 and 1×1013 ion/cm2, respectively. Electrical measurements have shown that after implantation the sheet resistance was 1.8×1011 Ω/□ and increased to 1.17×1014 Ω/□ and 3.29×1012 Ω/□ after annealing at 400°C and 600°C respectively. Annealing at 800°C decreased the sheet resistance to 1.38×108 Ω/□. Characterization by XRD, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy give evidence that implantation damages the crystal lattice, yielding insulating properties. It has been demonstrated that the isolation is stable up to 600°C.
Single orientation ZnO (00.2) films were deposited by means of high temperature high vacuum reactive magnetron sputtering onto Al2O3 (0001) and GaN (0001) substrates. In order to obtain films of high crystalline quality a novel approach to ZnO sputter deposition was employed, adapting the practice used in MBE technology, of using a MgO buffer layer deposited on sapphire at a high-temperature followed by a ZnO nucleation layer deposited at low temperature. ZnO films were also grown on epitaxial GaN/Al2O3 substrates where the GaN layer was treated as the buffer layer. Following the deposition, all samples were annealed ex-situ in an O2 flow at 800°C. The obtained ZnO films have a lattice constant c equal to 5.2036 Å and 5.214 Å for the films deposited on Al2O3 and GaN substrates, respectively. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiles, scanning and transmission electron microscopy cross sectional images and atomic force microscope were used to characterize the structural properties of the films. Electrical properties were assessed using Hall effect measurement. Photoluminescence spectra were also taken.
The reported work focuses on developing antidiffusion barriers capable to increase the thermal stability of metal contacts above 700 C. In the chosen approach, such an antidiffusion barrier consists of several bilayers of materials with different crystalline structures. It has been demonstrated that an interface between such materials effectively blocks the atomic interdiffusion. In this work the following groups of materials were used as the bilayers: ZrB2 and ZrN and TaSiN and TiN. The materials were deposited by means of room temperature sputtering from elemental and compound targets in inert Ar and reactive Ar+N2 atmospheres. The structures were characterised using secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiling and scanning electron microscopy cross sectional imaging directly after deposition and after degradation. I-V characteristics were measured and contact resistivities were determined from the circular transmission line method.
The influence of growth temperature on oxygen incorporation into GaN epitaxial layers was studied. GaN layers deposited at low temperatures were characterized by much higher oxygen concentration than those deposited at high temperature typically used for epitaxial growth. GaN buffer layers (HT GaN) about 1 μm thick were deposited on GaN nucleation layers (NL) with various thicknesses. The influence of NL thickness on crystalline quality and oxygen concentration of HT GaN layers were studied using RBS and SIMS. With increasing thickness of NL the crystalline quality of GaN buffer layers deteriorates and the oxygen concentration increases. It was observed that oxygen atoms incorporated at low temperature in NL diffuse into GaN buffer layer during high temperature growth as a consequence GaN NL is the source for unintentional oxygen doping.
ZnO:N and ZnO:Sb layers were obtained by thermal oxidation of Zn compounds with group-V elements. The films are polycrystalline, with the acceptor concentration in the range 1020 cm-3, and the background concentration of H of 5×1019 cm-3. Transport measurements reveal the p-type conductivity with the hole concentrations exceeding 1017 cm-3. Rich photoluminescence spectra involve excitons bound to neutral acceptors and donor-to-acceptor transitions. p-ZnO:N and p-ZnO:Sb films show transparency of about 85 % in the visible wavelength range, making these materials very promising for transparent electronics.
The fabrication and properties of ZnO-based rectifying p-n and p-i-n junctions are reported. ZnO films with p-type conductivity were obtained by oxidation of ZnTe grown by MBE on GaAs substrate. Insulating and n-type ZnO films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The processing of p-n junctions into device structures involved the formation of mesa geometry and preparation of ohmic contacts to p- and n-type regions.
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