A histological characterization of gonadal development in the tetra Astyanax bimaculatus was performed, aimed at determining its reproductive cycle in streams localized inside the Amazonian forest. Collections were carried out monthly from August 2017 to July 2018 at the Zoobotânica Foundation of Marabá, PA. Collected specimens were weighed and measured, and their gonads and liver were removed and weighed to calculate gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes. Gonads were fixed and treated for routine histology for light microscopy. Materials were stained with toluidine blue and haematoxylin and eosin. The Amazonian A. bimaculatus species presented two reproductive periods in the year, one at the end of the winter season and another during the summer. Females showed an asynchronous development of their oocytes and only two reproductive phases of development were observed during the whole period ‘developing’ and ‘spawning capable’. Males presented cystic spermatogenesis, with an anastomosing tubular testis containing spermatogonia spread along the germinal epithelium (unrestricted spermatogonial). These morphological characteristics are considered phylogenetically more primitive. Male specimens were observed to have five different phases during the period: immature, initial maturation, mid maturation, final maturation and regression. The huge fluctuations in Amazonian streams was observed, in which water volumes varied considerably across seasons, culminating even in total drought. In spite of this, A. bimaculatus could be found during all seasons, showing its impressive reproductive adaptation to its conditions.