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To evaluate the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and specific biomarkers of inflammation, CVD risk and endothelial dysfunction in prepubertal obese children.
Prospective, multicentre case–control study matched by age and sex.
Children were recruited between May 2007 and May 2010 from primary-care centres and schools in three cities in Spain (Cordoba, Santiago de Compostela and Zaragoza).
Four hundred and forty-six (223 normal weight and 223 obese) Caucasian prepubertal children aged 6–12 years.
WHtR was higher in the obese than in the normal-weight children. Blood pressure, waist circumference, weight, height, insulin, plasma lipids, leptin, resistin, abnormal neutrophil and monocyte counts, C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, myeloperoxidase, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, selectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were higher in the obese than in the normal-weight group. Adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol were lower and glucose and metalloproteinase-9 showed no differences. Resistin, TNF-α and active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were associated with WHtR, a sensitive indicator of central obesity.
Our results lead to the hypothesis that changes in biomarker levels of insulin resistance, inflammation and CVD risk before puberty might induce metabolic consequences of obesity in obese children before reaching adulthood.
To describe vitamin intakes in Spanish food patterns, identify
groups at risk for inadequacy and determine conditioning factors
that may influence this situation.
Pooled-analysis of eight cross-sectional regional nutrition
Ten thousand two hundred and eight free-living subjects (4728
men, 5480 women) aged 25–60 years. Respondents of population
nutritional surveys carried out in eight Spanish regions
(Alicante, Andalucía, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands,
Catalunya, Galicia, Madrid and Basque Country) from 1990 to
1998. The samples were pooled together and weighted to build a
national random sample.
Dietary assessment by means of repeated 24-hour recall using
photograph models to estimate portion size. Adjusted data for
intra-individual variation were used to estimate the prevalence
of inadequate intake. A Diet Quality Score (DQS) was computed
considering the risk for inadequate intake for folate, vitamin
C, vitamin A and vitamin E. DQS scores vary between 0 (good) and
4 (very poor). Influence of lifestyle (smoking, alcohol
consumption and physical activity) was considered as well.
Inadequate intakes (<⅔ Recommended Dietary Intake) were
estimated in more than 10% of the sample for riboflavin (in
men), folate (in women), vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin D and
vitamin E. More than 35% of the sample had diets classified as
poor quality or very poor quality. Factors identified to have an
influence on a poor-quality diet were old age, low education
level and low socio-economical level. A sedentary lifestyle,
smoking, usual consumption of alcohol and being overweight were
conditioning factors for a poor-quality diet as well.
Results from The eVe Study suggest that a high proportion of the
Spanish population has inadequate intakes for at least one
nutrient and nearly 50% should adjust their usual food pattern
towards a more nutrient-dense, healthier diet.
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