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Political parties with activists are in decline due to various external shocks. Societal changes, like the emergence of new technologies of communication have diminished the role and number of activists, while party elites increasingly can make do without grassroots activists. However, recent scholarship concerning different democracies has shown how activism still matters for representation. This book contributes to this literature by analyzing the unique case of the Uruguayan Frente Amplio (FA), the only mass-organic, institutionalized leftist party in Latin America. Using thick description, systematic process tracing, and survey research, this case study highlights the value of an organization-centered approach for understanding parties' role in democracy. Within the FA, organizational rules grant activists a significant voice, which imbues activists' participation with a strong sense of efficacy. This book is an excellent resource for scholars and students of Latin America and comparative politics who are interested in political parties and the challenges confronting new democracies.
In this work, the stopping power of a partially ionized helium plasma due to its free and bound electrons is analyzed for an electron temperature and density in which local thermal equilibrium (LTE) or non-local thermal equilibrium (NLTE) regimes can be possible. In particular by means of collisional-radiative models, the average ionization of the plasma as well as the abundances of different helium species (HeI, HeII, and HeIII) are analyzed in both LTE and NLTE thermodynamic states. The influence of this ionization and of the different ion abundances on the stopping power of the helium plasma is shown to be quite significant. Finally, our theoretical model is compared with experimental results on slowing down of swift argon ions in helium plasma.
A large collection of maize macro-specimens has been gathered from archaeological sites across the American continent, but only a few have been directly dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We recently conducted two new excavations in several rock shelters of Tehuacán valley (San Marcos, Coxcatlán, and Purrón) and uncovered 132 non-manipulated macro-specimens of maize suitable for morphological and paleogenomic analysis, including many complete cobs, stalks, internodes, and leaves. Direct AMS dates for 43 samples found in San Marcos or Coxcatlán confirm the previously reported chronologies for these sites. By contrast, a cob found in Purrón was dated to 3060±30 before present (3360–3180 cal BP) (2σ), demonstrating that maize was present at that site at least 1500 calendar years earlier than previously expected, and suggesting that other specimens of similar age are still likely to be found in the southeastern region of the Tehuacán valley. A global comparison of macro-specimen chronology across the continent shows that the current archaebotanical record does not yet reflect the chronology of dispersal from central Mexico to northern or southern regions, opening the possibility for finding the missing links in subsequent expeditions within Mexico and Central America.
The microbial fermentation of the tropical leguminous browses Acacia cornigera (ACA), Albisia lebbekoides (ALB), Enterolobium cyclocarpum (ENT) and Leucaena leucocephala (LEU) was estimated in vitro as the final production of gas. ACA gave the greatest final (asymptotic) gas volume (D; 179 ml/g DM) and fractional rate constant (0.070). Although ENT showed the greatest rate constant (0.87), reaching half its maximum gas production in 7.8 h, it produced less gas than ACA by 9 h incubation, and did not differ from LEU by 24 h ALB gave the lowest gas production. In another trial the negative effect of tannins was estimated over 48 h as ameliorated by the addition of PEG. The effect was variable between species, the greatest being with ALB (Restriction of 0.60-0.68 of the potential gas volume due to the presence of tannins) and increasing slowly, reaching its’ maximum at 12 or 24 h with ACA (0.33) or LEU (0.16). There was no response to the addition of PEG with ENT indicating that other secondary compounds distinct from the condensed tannins were affecting microbial utilisation.
To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Argentina from January 2014 to April 2017.
This prospective, pre–post surveillance study of 3,940 ICU patients was conducted in 11 hospitals in 5 cities in Argentina. During our baseline evaluation, we performed outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions. During the intervention, we implemented the IMA through ISOS: (1) a bundle of infection prevention practice interventions, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback on CLABSI rates and consequences, and (6) performance feedback of process surveillance. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of the intervention on the CLABSI rate.
During the baseline period, 5,118 CL days and 49 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 9.6 CLABSIs per 1,000 central-line (CL) days. During the intervention, 15,659 CL days and 68 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 4.1 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days. The CLABSI rate was reduced by 57% (incidence density rate: 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.6; P<.001).
Implementing IMA through ISOS was associated with a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate in ICUs in Argentina.
The potential democratizing effect of political decentralization reforms has been a matter of substantial theoretical and empirical debate. This article analyzes the effect of local democratic institution building on the political attitudes and behavior of citizens living in small towns in Uruguay. More specifically, using a natural experiment design, this research seeks to establish the causal impact of recently established elections of local authorities on individuals' political engagement. It develops a comparative case study analyzing the consequences of this institutional innovation in two towns. It shows that individuals from the town where citizens have the opportunity to elect their local authorities have more positive attitudes toward politics than those from the town without such elections.
Protected areas have been established historically in residual places where the potential for extractive uses is low, implying that places at risk are usually under-protected. Argentina is no exception, with few protected areas established in productive regions that are prone to conversion. Here, using reptiles as a study group and considering the most important human threats in north-western Argentina, we estimated priority conservation areas where we expect species to persist in the face of climate change and land conversion. Protected areas cover no more than 9% of the study region, but represent less than 15% of reptile distributions. There are great opportunities for improving the conservation status in the region by protecting only 8% more of north-western Argentina, with the level of species protection inside the protected area network increasing almost four-fold, reaching 43% of species distributions on average and 59% of the distributions of threatened reptiles. Fortunately, the highest diversity of reptiles in the region does not match the places targeted for agriculture expansion. Our findings suggest that future prioritization schemes should embrace other groups that are especially diverse in the Chaco ecoregion, which overlaps with our study area.
Hidden hunger occurs in the presence of an otherwise nutritionally or energetically appropriate diet that is deficient in essential vitamins and minerals. Guatemala has the highest rate of child malnutrition in Latin America and the prevalence of hidden hunger is high. The aim of this study was to determine the Mn, Se and Cr dietary intakes in Guatemalan institutionalised children (4–14 years), a population group at high risk of mineral deficiency. For this purpose, the contents of Mn, Se and Cr were analysed in a duplicate diet (for 7 consecutive days) by electrothermal atomisation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry following acid digestion. Mn, Se and Cr intakes from the duplicate diets were in the range of 1·3–2·31 mg/d, 58·7–69·6 µg/d and 6·32–27·57 µg/d, respectively. Mn and Cr values were below current recommended daily intakes. A cereal- and legumes-based diet is habitually consumed by this population. Local vegetables, fruits and nutritional supplements are included daily, but the consumption of fish, meat, eggs and dairy products is very infrequent or negligible. Mean daily energy intake from the 7-d diet was 8418·2 kJ (2012 kcal), with a macronutrient energy distribution of carbohydrates 69·4 %, proteins 12·3 % and fats 18·3 %. Correlations between Mn, Se and Cr intakes and energy and other nutrient intakes were also evaluated. The present findings will help establish new nutritional strategies for this and similar population groups.
This work presents the main results from a selection of optical spectra of Seyfert and LINER galaxies taken from the 9th release of the SDSS with detectable coronal emission. A catalogue of 345 Seyfert 1 (Sy1) and Seyfert 2 (Sy2) galaxies with Forbidden High Ionization Lines (FHILs) emission is presented. By analysing their spectra as well as utilising data from the literature we found evidence of anisotropy in optical FHIL emissions between Sy1 and Sy2 galaxies for the following lines: [Ne v] λ3426, [Fe vii] λ6087, [Fe x] λ6374 and [Fe xi] λ7892. Results continue indicating that optical FHILs are not observed in LINER type galaxies.
New data and a review of historiographic information from Neolithic sites of the Malaga and Algarve coasts (southern Iberian Peninsula) and from the Maghreb (North Africa) reveal the existence of a Neolithic settlement at least from 7.5 cal ka BP. The agricultural and pastoralist food producing economy of that population rapidly replaced the coastal economies of the Mesolithic populations. The timing of this population and economic turnover coincided with major changes in the continental and marine ecosystems, including upwelling intensity, sea-level changes and increased aridity in the Sahara and along the Iberian coast. These changes likely impacted the subsistence strategies of the Mesolithic populations along the Iberian seascapes and resulted in abandonments manifested as sedimentary hiatuses in some areas during the Mesolithic–Neolithic transition. The rapid expansion and area of dispersal of the early Neolithic traits suggest the use of marine technology. Different evidences for a Maghrebian origin for the first colonists have been summarized. The recognition of an early North-African Neolithic influence in Southern Iberia and the Maghreb is vital for understanding the appearance and development of the Neolithic in Western Europe. Our review suggests links between climate change, resource allocation, and population turnover.
The layered oxide LiVO2 recently has received more attention due to its interesting structural and magnetic behaviors involving the two-dimensional magnetic frustration in these systems. We synthesized a series of F-doped LiVO2 samples, and reported the F-doping effect on the structure and transition temperature Tt. The samples LiVO2-xFx (x=0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurement. The structural analysis shows that with increasing x, the ratio of lattice parameter c/a increasing, i.e. in the a-b plane the lattice is compressed while in the c-axis direction the lattice expands. The DSC measurements show that a first-order phase transition happens at around 500 K, and the thermal hysteresis around phase transition temperature Tt increases with increasing x. Substitution of O with F ions results in a change of two dimensional characteristics and the distortion of the VO6 block in structure, which significantly influence the magnetic ordering transition temperature Tt.
Recently we were able to retrieve the Earth's transmission spectrum through lunar eclipse observations. This spectrum showed that the depth of most molecular species was stronger than models had anticipated. The presence of other atmospheric signatures, such as atmospheric dimers, were also present in the spectrum. We have been developing a radiative transfer code able to reproduce the Earth's transmission spectra at different depths into the penumbra and umbra, and taking into account transmission, refraction, and multiple scattering. Here we discuss the results to date and the work ahead.
Usually, Halymenia and Cryptonemia species have been reported as associated with rhodolith beds, but based on surveys of rhodolith beds and rocky areas along the Gulf of California (60 localities), in five localities we found the range extension (5 localities) of three other blade-like species, Kallymenia norrisii and K. oblongifructa previously reported on the North Pacific coast of California State (USA) and K. pertusa previously reported in the northern Gulf of California. The present study reports for the first time the presence of K. norrisii, K. oblongifructa and K. pertusa associated with rodolith beds. This suggests that the understanding of biodiversity of marine plants from the Gulf of California still needs attention, especially in deeper areas and habitats such as rhodolith beds.