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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To assess the impact of FLTCs on CTR on S and F from health professions and basic science academic programs island wide in Puerto Rico. Cycles supported by the Title V Cooperative Project at University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus (UPRMSC) and Universidad Central del Caribe (UCC)(Title V). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: After offering FLTCs in CTR to S and F from UPRMSC and UCC, Title V expanded it to S and F from other institutions island wide in PR. These FLTCs were offered the 2nd semester of 2018 and consisted of 20 hours of interdisciplinary sessions in: introduction to and definition of CTR; preparation of a CTR-presentation; how to interview/share a presentation of a CT researcher and to prepare a research question in CTR. To assess the knowledge of S and F in the above-mentioned skills and their continuation in the 2nd level of CTR training, surveys were administered: pre-test, at the beginning, post-test, sometime during the FLTCs, and satisfaction at the end of the FLTCs. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Fifty eight (58) S/F from UPRMSC, UCC and 7 other institutions participated. Forty two (42,72%) answered a pre-test and 31/42 (74%) completed the post-test. Results showed that S/F: who correctly defined CTR increased from 7% to 77 %; their ability to identify a CT researcher increased from 10% to 83%. Fifty five percent (55 %) (21/38) S/F that were certified in the FLTCs, answered the satisfaction survey. One hundred percent (100%) indicated that the materials offered contributed in the identification of a CT researcher and a topic in CTR; 100% answered that the FLTCs contributed higher knowledge in and provided new skills in CTR. Moreover, 31/38 (82%) S/F started the 2nd level of training. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The FLTCs were successful in increasing S/F knowledge of CTR and to further engage in 2nd level of trainings. Title V impact extended island wide, increasing the diversity of represented health professions and science fields among participants. The interventions were deemed to be of high quality.
This article presents new evidence and analysis on age heaping—a proxy for numeracy and therefore for human capital—in New Spain during the Enlightenment. Human capital plays an important role in economic growth and welfare. It is also one of the dimensions of inequality. Our results are at odds with many of the usual assumptions on which most Mexicanist historiography is based. Age heaping levels of males and females and ethnic groups across locations in Central New Spain are estimated and compared through ad hoc indicators with other countries. We infer that a more empirical emphasis on the institutional legacy of the viceregal period and more attention to human capital since pre-Conquest times will benefit the progress of Hispanic American economic history.
More than 50% of Spanish youth does not use of condoms correctly and consistently. University students are a particular population at high risk of the HIV infection, other STIs and unwanted pregnancies. The influence of psychological variables in using of condom is analyzed by gender and type of sexual relationship. A total of 256 females and 168 males were assessed (Mage= 20.62; SD = 2.16). A regression logistic analysis showed that sexual sensation seeking appears as an explanatory variable of inconsistently condom use in both females and males in vaginal intercourse, steady relationship intercourse and sex under the alcohol and other drugs effects (adjusted odds ratio between 1.095 and 1.124). Moreover, self-esteem appears as a risk factor and extraversion as a protective factor of use of condom in females. On the other hand, neuroticism reveals itself as a protective factor and fear of negative evaluation as a risk factor of use of condom in males. It is necessary to know the psychological mechanisms that underlie sexual risk behaviors for adapting interventions to individual and contextual characteristics.
The need to achieve a uniform distribution of concentrated solar flux in the photovoltaic, thermal or any other receivers is a common problem; therefore, the optical characterization of the concentration system is necessary to determinate the physical characteristics of the receptors. In this work, a parabolic dish concentrator of 1.65x1.65 m2, developed by research from the University of Arizona, is optically characterized under normal operating conditions, also known as environmental conditions that refer to non-controlled conditions as solar radiation, environmental temperature and wind velocity that could affect slightly, by thermal and mechanical efforts, the distribution profiles of the concentrated solar radiation. The set used for the evaluation consisted of the parabolic mirror and Chilled Lambertian Flat Surface installed in the focal point on the optical axis of the mirror. The evaluation was divided into two parts: a theoretical part that consist on using ray tracing simulation and an experimental part that corresponds to image analysis. The used methodology in this work has been stablish in many researches, so this is a reliable method. The global optical error was 2.3 mrad under normal operating conditions.
The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been associated with negative outcomes in psychosis; however, few studies have focused on the duration of active psychotic symptoms after commencing treatment (DAT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of DUP and DAT on functional long-term outcomes (3 years) in patients with early psychosis.
We evaluated the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) at frequent intervals for 3 years after presentation to determine the DAT for 307 individuals with first-episode psychosis together with DUP and clinical variables. The functional outcomes were assessed using the Disability Assessment Scale (DAS) at three years, and functional recovery was defined as minimal impairment and return to activity. Associated variables, DAT and DUP were included in logistic regression models to predict functional outcomes. Receiver operating characteristic curves and Youden’s index were applied to assess the best cut-off values.
DAT, (Wald: 13.974; ExpB: 1.097; p < 0.001), premorbid adjustment, initial BPRS score, gender, age of onset and schizophrenia diagnosis were significant predictors of social functioning, whereas only premorbid adjustment (Wald: 11.383; ExpB:1.009), DAT (Wald: 4.850; ExpB: 1.058; p = 0.028) and education were significant predictors of recovery. The optimal cut-off of DAT for predicting social functioning was 3.17 months for DAT (sensitivity: 0.68; specificity: 0.64; Youden’s index: 0.314).
DAT is strongly related to functional outcomes independent of the DUP period or other variables. As a modifiable variable, the reduction of the DAT should be considered a main focus of intervention from the onset of the illness to improve long-term outcomes.
This paper deals with the evolution of wages in the construction offices of Segovia, one of the most important Castilian and Spanish manufacturing towns, between 1571 and 1807. Part two deals with the nominal wages earned by the building officials and labourers of the city and part three presents the Segovian prices index between 1571 and 1807. Finally, part four analyses the evolution of the real wages earned in the construction offices of the town. Segovian real wages evolved in line with the local economy; after peaking in the first quarter of the 17th century, they experienced a continuous decline, so in 1807 the real wages of Segovian building officials and labourers were 50 per cent of those of the first quarter of the 17th century.
In the intensive care setting, delirium is a common occurrence; however, the impact of the level of alertness has never been evaluated. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the delirium characteristics in the drowsy, as well as the alert and calm patient.
In this prospective cohort study, 225 intensive care patients with Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS) scores of −1 — drowsy and 0 — alert and calm were evaluated with the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-1998 (DRS-R-98) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 4th edition text revision (DSM-IV-TR)-determined diagnosis of delirium.
In total, 85 drowsy and 140 alert and calm patients were included. Crucial items for the correct identification of delirium were sleep–wake cycle disturbances, language abnormalities, thought process alterations, psychomotor retardation, disorientation, inattention, short- and long-term memory, as well as visuo-spatial impairment, and the temporal onset. Conversely, perceptual disturbances, delusions, affective lability, psychomotor agitation, or fluctuations were items, which identified delirium less correctly. Further, the severities of inattentiveness and visuo-spatial impairment were indicative of delirium in both alert- or calmness and drowsiness.
Significance of results
The impairment in the cognitive domain, psychomotor retardation, and sleep–wake cycle disturbances correctly identified delirium irrespective of the level alertness. Further, inattentiveness and — to a lesser degree — visuo-spatial impairment could represent a specific marker for delirium in the intensive care setting meriting further evaluation.
The aim of this study was to describe individuals seeking care for injury at a major emergency department (ED) in southern Puerto Rico in the months after Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017.
After informed consent, we used a modified version of the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine why patients were visiting the ED during October 16, 2017–March 28, 2018. We analyzed visits where injury was reported as the primary reason for visit and whether it was hurricane-related.
Among 5 116 patients, 573 (11%) reported injury as the primary reason for a visit. Of these, 10% were hurricane-related visits. The most common types of injuries were abrasions, lacerations, and cuts (43% of all injury visits and 50% of hurricane-related visits). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, slips, trips (268, 47%), and being hit by/or against an object (88, 15%). Most injury visits occurred during the first 3 months after the hurricane.
Surveillance after Hurricane Maria identified injury as the reason for a visit for about 1 in 10 patients visiting the ED, providing evidence on the patterns of injuries in the months following a hurricane. Public health and emergency providers can use this information to anticipate health care needs after a disaster.
In this study, we examine how the Guri catfish Genidens genidens uses estuarine and freshwater habitats along the largest South American coastal lagoon, through the chemical analysis of otoliths and microscopic analysis of gonads. Chemical composition (Sr:Ca) of otolith edges allowed distinguishing between individuals who used the estuarine or freshwater compartments of the lagoon. The analysis of core-to-edge chemical profiles of each individual otolith revealed that the population may present two different patterns of habitat use along the lagoon. The ‘type 1’ pattern (89.5%) includes fish who appear to have been born in estuarine waters, whereas ‘type 2’ (9.5%) includes those fish born in fresh water. Nevertheless, juveniles from both patterns appear to migrate to estuarine waters. The gonad analysis shows G. genidens may reproduce in fresh water, as nearly 57% of all sampled fish were found to spawn in the freshwater portion of the lagoon. Also, the otolith core of many adult fish presented freshwater signatures, thus suggesting consistent fresh water use during early life. Our findings based on otolith and gonadal analyses challenge the previous classification of G. genidens as an estuarine resident. Rather, our results allow the suggestion that this species should be placed in the ‘estuarine and fresh water’ guild, which includes both fish completing their life cycles within the estuary and fish who consistently use freshwater habitats.
We report comprehensive rock-magnetic and archaeointensity investigations from 21 well-constrained pottery fragments from the Catamarca province of northwest Argentina. The absolute ages of the studied sites are ascertained by several high-quality radiometric ages and range between 1940 to 114014C yr BP. Magnetic mineralogy experiments indicates that the remanence is carried by thermally stable Ti-poor titanomagnetites. Forty-seven samples belonging to 11 out of 98 studied potsherds yielded reliable absolute intensity determinations judging from the quality parameters associated with the Thellier double-heating experiments. Moreover, we analyzed the available absolute geomagnetic intensities associated with the radiometric ages to construct the first intensity paleosecular variation curve (PSVC) for South America using thermoremanent magnetization carried by burned archaeological artifacts obtained in the present investigation and 79 other selected archaeointensities (out of 213 published in the literature). The dataset is used to build the PSVC reference curve by combined bootstrap and temporal P-spline methods. The variation curve shows significant differences with the global prediction model SHA.DIF.14k mainly based on the GEOMAGIA database. This intensity PSVC curve shows reasonably good agreement with paleosecular variation curves for Europe between 850 through 1150 BC and for Asia between 1000 and 1500 BC. This regional curve may be used as most reliable archaeomagnetic dating tool for the major part of South America (Peru, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia) for the last two millennia.
Chitosan (Ch)-Polyvinyl (alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels cross-linked with sodium tripolyphosphate were synthetized to obtain a polymer matrix encapsulating an insecticide (active ingredient: imidacloprid). Imidacloprid release tests were performed separately with moist and lyophilized hydrogel beads with a diameter of 3.47 and 3.30 mm respectively. The concentration of the insecticide released in the medium was determined by UV-Visible spectroscopy, reaching equilibrium for wet hydrogels at 72h at a concentration of 330 mg L-1 and 281 mg L-1 in 48h for lyophilized hydrogels, comparing it with a maximum load of 330.18 mg L-1of imidacloprid contained in the hydrogels. The characterization of hydrogels was performed by Fourier transform infrarred spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the functional groups. The morphology of the polymer matrix of the hydrogels was carried out in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The size distribution and diameter of bead samples were observed through a stereomicroscope. The percentage of humidity of the hydrogels was determined obtaining 94.8% once the imidacloprid was released. the pore size of the samples was determined by the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) technique. The techniques used indicated that controlled release of imidacloprid could be more efficient with wet hydrogels in relation to the maximum load of imidacloprid contained, for protection of crops is necessary for a long time because of insecticide disponible in the soil.
A novel process for Boron doping of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films, using thermal diffusion, is described. Hall measurements show an increase in carrier concentration from 1013 to 1020 cm−3. Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy and x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy show a band gap of 4.4 eV, a work function of 5.1 eV and a Fermi level at 2.0 eV above the valence band. Boron atoms distribution through UNCD films, was measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, revealing Boron atoms diffusivity of about 10−14 cm2/s. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray Diffraction analysis revealed that UNCD films did not suffer graphitization nor structural damage during annealing.
The primary objectives of the ExoplANETS-A project are to: establish new knowledge on exoplanet atmospheres; establish new insight on influence of the host star on the planet atmosphere; disseminate knowledge, using online, web-based platforms. The project, funded under the EU’s Horizon-2020 programme, started in January 2018 and has a duration ∼3 years. We present an overview of the project, the activities concerning the host stars and some early results on the host stars.
The importance of the proper identification of delirium, with its high incidence and adversities in the intensive care setting, has been widely recognized. One common screening instrument is the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC); however, the symptom profile and key features of delirium dependent on the level of sedation have not yet been evaluated.
In this prospective cohort study, the ICDSC was evaluated versus the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition, text revision, diagnosis of delirium set as standard with respect to the symptom profile, and correct identification of delirium. The aim of this study was to identify key features of delirium in the intensive care setting dependent on the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale levels of sedation: drowsiness versus alert and calmness.
The 88 delirious patients of 225 were older, had more severe disease, and prolonged hospitalization. Irrespective of the level of sedation, delirium was correctly classified by items related to inattention, disorientation, psychomotor alterations, inappropriate speech or mood, and symptom fluctuation. In the drowsy patients, inattention reached substantial sensitivity and specificity, whereas psychomotor alterations and sleep-wake cycle disturbances were sensitive lacked specificity. The positive prediction was substantial across items, whereas the negative prediction was only moderate. In the alert and calm patient, the sensitivities were substantial for psychomotor alterations, sleep-wake cycle disturbances, and symptom fluctuations; however, these fluctuations were not specific. The positive prediction was moderate and the negative prediction substantial. Between the nondelirious drowsy and alert, the symptom profile was similar; however, drowsiness was associated with alterations in consciousness.
Significance of results
In the clinical routine, irrespective of the level of sedation, delirium was characterized by the ICDSC items for inattention, disorientation, psychomotor alterations, inappropriate speech or mood and symptom fluctuation. Further, drowsiness caused altered levels of consciousness.
A large collection of maize macro-specimens has been gathered from archaeological sites across the American continent, but only a few have been directly dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We recently conducted two new excavations in several rock shelters of Tehuacán valley (San Marcos, Coxcatlán, and Purrón) and uncovered 132 non-manipulated macro-specimens of maize suitable for morphological and paleogenomic analysis, including many complete cobs, stalks, internodes, and leaves. Direct AMS dates for 43 samples found in San Marcos or Coxcatlán confirm the previously reported chronologies for these sites. By contrast, a cob found in Purrón was dated to 3060±30 before present (3360–3180 cal BP) (2σ), demonstrating that maize was present at that site at least 1500 calendar years earlier than previously expected, and suggesting that other specimens of similar age are still likely to be found in the southeastern region of the Tehuacán valley. A global comparison of macro-specimen chronology across the continent shows that the current archaebotanical record does not yet reflect the chronology of dispersal from central Mexico to northern or southern regions, opening the possibility for finding the missing links in subsequent expeditions within Mexico and Central America.
To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Argentina from January 2014 to April 2017.
This prospective, pre–post surveillance study of 3,940 ICU patients was conducted in 11 hospitals in 5 cities in Argentina. During our baseline evaluation, we performed outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions. During the intervention, we implemented the IMA through ISOS: (1) a bundle of infection prevention practice interventions, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback on CLABSI rates and consequences, and (6) performance feedback of process surveillance. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of the intervention on the CLABSI rate.
During the baseline period, 5,118 CL days and 49 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 9.6 CLABSIs per 1,000 central-line (CL) days. During the intervention, 15,659 CL days and 68 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 4.1 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days. The CLABSI rate was reduced by 57% (incidence density rate: 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.6; P<.001).
Implementing IMA through ISOS was associated with a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate in ICUs in Argentina.
We analyze Sun-as-a-star observations spanning over solar cycles 22 – 24 from the ground-based network BiSON and solar cycles 23 – 24 collected by the space-based VIRGO and GOLF instruments on board the SoHO satellite. Using simultaneous observations from all three instruments, our analysis suggests that the structural and magnetic changes responsible for modifying the frequencies remained comparable between cycle 23 and cycle 24 but differ from cycle 22. Thus we infer that the magnetic layer of the Sun has become thinner since the beginning of cycle 23 and continues during the current cycle.
This paper is focused on explaining the radiation test in temperature performed on the Engineering and Qualification Model of the Medium Gain Antenna Radiofrequency (MGA-RFA) Assembly of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The goal of this program is to observe and study Mercury and its surroundings in a very demanding environment in terms of temperature and radiation. The MGA is an X-band two-axis steerable horn, which provides bidirectional communications between spacecraft and Earth as backup of the High Gain Antenna and also operates as primary communication link at several mission stages or conditions. The paper presents the measurement set-up for the qualification campaign of the antenna, where it was necessary to characterize the antenna in a representative thermal environment, and the results obtained from this test. Results of test up to 150°C show how gain and radiation pattern shapes are slightly affected by thermal stress, but without jeopardizing mission requirements. In addition, by analyzing correlation of this test with RF analysis in the same thermal conditions, it becomes possible to accurately extrapolate the MGA-RFA behavior up to temperatures of more than 500°C. This fact allowed the successful space qualification of this model.
Similar to delirium, its subsyndromal form has been recognized as the cause of diverse adverse outcomes. Nonetheless, the nature of this subsyndromal delirium remains vastly understudied. Therefore, in the following, we evaluate the phenomenological characteristics of this syndrome versus no and full-syndromal delirium.
In this prospective cohort study, we evaluated the Delirium Rating Scale–Revised, 1998 (DRS–R–98) versus the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM–IV–TR) diagnostic criteria and examined the diagnosis of delirium with respect to phenomenological distinctions in the intensive care setting.
Out of 289 patients, 36 with subsyndromal delirium versus 86 with full-syndromal and 167 without delirium were identified. Agreement with respect to the DSM–IV–TR diagnosis of delirium was perfect. The most common subtype in those with subsyndromal delirium was hypoactive, in contrast to mixed subtype in those with full-syndromal delirium versus no motor alterations in those without delirium. By presence and severity of delirium symptoms, subsyndromal delirium was intermediate. The ability of the DRS–R–98 items to discriminate between either form of delirium was substantial. Between subsyndromal and no delirium, the cognitive domain and sleep–wake cycle were more impaired and allowed a distinction with no delirium. Further, between full- and subsyndromal delirium, the prevalence and severity of individual DRS–R–98 items were greater. Although the differences between these two forms of delirium was substantial, the items were not very specific, indicating that the phenomenology of subsyndromal delirium is closer to full-syndromal delirium.
Significance of results:
Phenomenologically, subsyndromal delirium was found to be distinct from and intermediate between no delirium and full-syndromal delirium. Moreover, the greater proximity to full-syndromal delirium indicated that subsyndromal delirium represents an identifiable subform of full-syndromal delirium.