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Metal–insulator–metal (MIM) resonant absorbers comprise a conducting ground plane, a dielectric of thickness t, and thin separated metal top-surface structures of dimension l. The fundamental resonance wavelength is predicted by an analytic standing-wave model based on t, l, and the dielectric refractive index spectrum. For the dielectrics SiO2, AlN, and TiO2, values for l of a few microns give fundamental resonances in the 8-12 μm long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavelength region. Agreement with theory is better for t/l exceeding 0.1. Harmonics at shorter wavelengths were already known, but we show that there are additional resonances in the far-infrared 20 - 50 μm wavelength range in MIM structures designed to have LWIR fundamental resonances. These new resonances are consistent with the model if far-IR dispersion features in the index spectrum are considered. LWIR fundamental absorptions are experimentally shown to be optimized for a ratio t/l of 0.1 to 0.3 for SiO2- and AlN-based MIM absorbers, respectively, with TiO2-based MIM optimized at an intermediate ratio.
EARLY in Christopher Marlowe's The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus, the title character admonishes himself: “Faustus, begin thine incantations / And try if devils will obey thy hest” (B 1.3.5–6). In the play, devils indeed obey Faustus—for a price. While Marlowe's play is the most famous Elizabethan portrayal of devils, it is not the only early modern work to treat devils as substantial characters. Around the time when Faustus first appeared on stage, an unlikely Marlovian counterpart was at work. Anne Dowriche, a Puritan preacher's wife, whose preface haughtily notes that “Poëtrie [has] been defaced of late so many waies by wanton vanity,” published The French Historie in 1589. This poem, in the tradition of John Foxe's Acts and Monuments, portrays the persecution of French Protestants during the Wars of Religion; Dowriche includes a remarkably vivid characterization of Satan, one that I argue can be fruitfully compared to the devils in Marlowe's Dr. Faustus.
These two authors make an unlikely pair: an obscure Puritan poet and a famously controversial playwright. Their works are in different genres, with different purposes, and, consequently, have different depictions of the devil. Marlowe's play has many devils, from Satan to lower-level minions; Mephistopheles falls somewhere in the middle of this hierarchy. Dowriche, on the other hand, focuses only on Satan himself. Marlowe's blank-verse play has frequent dialogues between Faustus and Mephistopheles; Dowriche's poem, employing the much-maligned poulter's measure, contains primarily monologues delivered by Satan to eager listeners. Marlowe's portrayal of devils is thus much more immediate and intimate, at least where the characters are concerned. While Faustus and Mephistopheles make a brief detour to interfere with the Pope's quarrel with the Holy Roman Empire, Mephistopheles is primarily concerned with Faustus's individual soul rather than with international politics. Dowriche's Satan, on the other hand, speaks most often to the heads of state in France, while Dowriche's narrator (a French exile) directly challenges England to “remaine … A Nurse to Gods afflicted flock”—i.e., persecuted Protestants (lines 97–98). In fact, Dowriche's dedication of the poem to her brother, Piers Edgecombe, a strong supporter of Protestant refugees relocating to England, suggests that Dowriche had a political as well as a religious purpose for publishing her poem. It is not surprising that two such different authors produced different depictions of the devil.
Vanadium Oxide has application to infrared bolometers due to high temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR). It has attracted interest for switchable plasmonic devices due to its metal to insulator transition near room temperature. We report here the properties of vanadium oxide deposited by an aqueous spray process. The films have a ropy surface morphology with ∼70 nm surface roughness. The polycrystalline phase depends on annealing conditions. The films have TCR of ∼2%/deg, which compares well with sputtered films. Only weak evidence is found for an insulator-metal phase transition in these films.
Metal–insulator–metal (MIM) resonant absorbers comprise a conducting ground plane, a thin dielectric, and thin separated metal top-surface structures. The dielectric SiO2 strongly absorbs near 9 µm wavelength and has correspondingly strong long-wave-infrared (LWIR) dispersion for the refractive index. This dispersion results in multiple absorption resonances spanning the LWIR, which can enhance broad-band sensitivity for LWIR bolometers. Similar considerations apply to silicon nitride Si3N4. TiO2 and AlN have comparatively low dispersion and give simple single LWIR resonances. These dispersion-dependent features for infrared MIM devices are demonstrated by experiment, electrodynamic simulation, and an analytic model based on standing waves.
Network analysis is an emerging approach in the study of psychopathology, yet few applications have been seen in eating disorders (EDs). Furthermore, little research exists regarding changes in network strength after interventions. Therefore the present study examined the network structures of ED and co-occurring depression and anxiety symptoms before and after treatment for EDs.
Participants from residential or partial hospital ED treatment programs (N = 446) completed assessments upon admission and discharge. Networks were estimated using regularized Graphical Gaussian Models using 38 items from the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
ED symptoms with high centrality indices included a desire to lose weight, guilt about eating, shape overvaluation, and wanting an empty stomach, while restlessness, self-esteem, lack of energy, and feeling overwhelmed bridged ED to depression and anxiety symptoms. Comparisons between admission and discharge networks indicated the global network strength did not change significantly, though symptom severity decreased. Participants with denser networks at admission evidenced less change in ED symptomatology during treatment.
Findings suggest that symptoms related to shape and weight concerns and guilt are central ED symptoms, while physical symptoms, self-esteem, and feeling overwhelmed are links that may underlie comorbidities in EDs. Results provided some support for the validity of network approaches, in that admission networks conveyed prognostic information. However, the lack of correspondence between symptom reduction and change in network strength indicates that future research is needed to examine network dynamics in the context of intervention and relapse prevention.