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Currently, mark-making practices as a form of identification and proof of life are an unrealized resource. Over a three-year period, systematic walkover surveys were conducted on and within fortifications and other structures on the island of Alderney to locate historic and modern marks. The investigations presented in this article demonstrate the importance of non-invasive recording and examination of marks to identify evidence connected to forced and slave labourers, and soldiers present on the island of Alderney during the German occupation in World War II. Names, hand and footwear impressions, slogans, artworks, dates, and counting mechanisms were recorded electronically and investigated by using international databases, archives, and translation services. We discuss the value and challenges of interpreting traces of human life in the contexts of conflict archaeology and missing person investigations and underline the need for greater recognition of marks as evidence of past lives.
To assess the validity of a 148-item quantitative FFQ (QFFQ) that was developed for the Barbados National Cancer Study (BNCS) to determine dietary intake over 12 months and examine the dietary risk factors.
A cross-sectional validation study of the QFFQ against 4 d food diaries. Spearman’s rank correlations (ρ), intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and weighted κ were computed as measures of concordance, adjusting for daily variations in the food diaries. Cross-classification tables and Bland–Altman plots were created for further assessment.
BNCS is a case–control study of environmental risk factors for breast and prostate cancer in a predominantly African-origin population in Barbados.
Fifty-four individuals (21 years and older) were recruited among controls in the BNCS who were frequency-matched on sex and age group to breast and prostate cancer cases.
Similar mean daily energy intake was derived from the food diary (8201 kJ (1960 kcal)) and QFFQ (7774 kJ (1858 kcal)). Rho for energy and macronutrients ranged from 0·66 (energy) to 0·17 (dietary fibre). The percentage of energy from carbohydrates and protein showed the highest and lowest ICC among macronutrients (0·63 and 0·27, respectively). The highest weighted κ was observed for energy (0·45). When the nutrient intake was divided into quartiles, approximately 34 % of the observations were in the same quartile.
This investigation supports the validity of the QFFQ as a method for assessing long-term dietary intake except for dietary fibre, folate, vitamins A, E and B12. The instrument will be a useful tool in the analysis of diet–cancer associations in the BNCS.
Consider the following visual representations for the concept number 3”:
Photographs (Figure 8.1), drawings (Figure 8.2), videotapes and sound tapes are examples of recordings of linguistic data. Although they vary in their degree of data “fidelity” due to the fact that any recording necessarily makes a selection from all the data points present in an actual utterance and its context, these recordings stay close to the actual utterance. They can be collected, but the collection cannot be sorted into subsets nor can subsets be counted meaningfully because a recording is a non-analytic representation of the perceptible side or form of a linguistic utterance. For example, without a notation system, one cannot select all recordings that show all fingers extended in a corpus of American Sign Language (ASL) signs.
Figure 8.3 throughFigure 8.8 are notations of a linguistic utterance. Figure 8.3, Figure 8.4 and Figure 8.5 show writing systems, Figure 8.6 and Figure 8.7 transcription systems, and Figure 8.8 a coding system we are developing for signed languages. Notations, unlike recordings, intentionally abstract away from the original linguistic events in ways not dictated by limitations of the recording process or “artistic license,” but by (more or less) systematic decisions to annotate or symbolize only some (discrete) elements of the original signal. In almost all cases, they are part of an analytic system of some kind, but they differ from each other in what they represent, how they do it and their goals.
Do you have an enquiring mind and an enthusiasm or thirst for knowledge? Do you want to get involved in radiotherapy research or develop your research expertise? Research should underpin the clinical and educational activities undertaken by Radiation Therapists. For many, research can seem a daunting process that is beyond their expertise or capabilities. All health care practitioners can use research evidence and some may want to undertake their own research but may feel unsure where to start.
This article is aimed at novice researchers (or those with limited research experience) and those wanting to develop their research potential. The discussion should help practitioners identify the necessary skills required to undertake research, where to go for help, the research process (including where research ideas come from), and what to consider when putting together a project team or applying for research funding.
The discussion concludes on the importance of research training and support (or mentoring) for novice researchers or those at the start of their research careers. The national professional body for therapists can play an important role in helping researchers to network with likeminded individuals. Some professional bodies (such as the College of radiographers in the UK) may also provide small research grants to help build research activity, and as such can be a useful starting point when considering research funding.
This article reflects on the influences on current radiotherapy practice and the key role that Therapeutic Radiographers have in the management of cancer care and the delivery of treatments. In particular the Cancer Reform Strategy is discussed which clearly highlights the many challenges related to cancer. Changes in societal and scientific understanding will demand that the most appropriate and evidence-based care is provided for patients, underscoring the need for evidence through research, to underpin every aspect of daily work if patient outcomes are to continue to improve. In October 2005, the Society and College of Radiographers published: ‘Research and the Radiography Profession—A Strategy and Five Year Plan’. This is an ambitious document, which sets out expectations for the appreciation and use of substantiated research involvement at all levels of practice. Sections of this document and the relevance to radiotherapy practice are discussed. Alongside this, the career progression model for radiography continued to be driven forward with support from the Department of Health. This model describing higher levels of practice for radiographers, at advanced and consultant levels, clearly identified research as a key requirement for the profession. The guidance document in 2006, from the Society and College of Radiographers ‘Positioning Therapeutic Radiographers within Cancer Services: Delivering Patient Centred Care’, further articulated these expert roles, in response to the changing drivers within cancer and across the radiotherapy pathway. In conclusion, research must become a fundamental component of everyday radiotherapy practice as it will verify professional standards of care and sustain the future of the profession. To contribute to the wider cancer agenda it is imperative that all therapeutic radiographers, from practitioner to consultant level, participate in and lead research.
Simplicity of construction and operation are advantages of iTMC (ionic transition metal complex) OLEDs compared with multi-layer OLED devices. Unfortunately, lifetimes do not compare favorably with the best multi-layer devices. We have previously shown for Ru(bpy)3(PF6)2 based iTMC OLEDs that electrical drive produces emission-quenching dimers of the active species. We report evidence here that a chemical process may also be implicated in degradation of devices based on Ir(ppy)2(dtb-bpy)PF6 albeit by a very different mechanism. It appears that degradation of operating devices made with this Ir-based complex is related to current-induced heating of the organic layer, resulting in loss of the dtb-bpy ligand. (The dtb-bpy ligand is labile compared with the cyclometallated ppy ligands.) Morphological changes observed in electrically driven Ir(ppy)2(dtb-bpy)PF6 OLEDs provide evidence of substantial heating during device operation. Evidence from UV-vis spectra in the presence of an electric field as well as MALDI-TOF mass spectra of the OLED materials before and after electrical drive add support for this model of the degradation process.
This report summarises a workshop convened by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) on 11 September 2006 to review the results of three FSA-funded studies and other recent research on effects of the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on cardiovascular health. The objective of this workshop was to reach a clear conclusion on whether or not it was worth funding any further research in this area. On the basis of this review of the experimental evidence and on theoretical grounds, it was concluded that the n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio is not a useful concept and that it distracts attention away from increasing absolute intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids which have been shown to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. Other markers of fatty acid intake, that more closely relate to physiological function, may be more useful.
To develop a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) for the Barbados National Cancer Study (BNCS) that will permit examination of associations of diet with breast and prostate cancer.
Population intake data from the year 2000 Barbados Food Consumption and Anthropometric Surveys (BFCAS 2000) were used to derive a list of foods consumed by the population. A 192-item draft QFFQ was developed from this list.
Barbados, West Indies provides an ideal environment to understand cancer risk in African-origin populations, with high relevance to African-Americans. The BNCS is a population-based case–control study examining risk factors for breast and prostate cancer in such populations.
A total of 1600 persons, 18 years and older, completed a 24-hour recall in the BFCAS 2000. Fifty of 63 randomly selected residents (79% response rate) gave additional updated information on foods consumed.
The 50 participants provided a one-time 24-hour recall and completed the draft QFFQ. The final instrument contains 148 items: breads, cakes, cereals = 17; rice, pastas, noodles = 8; dairy = 10; meat, fish, poultry = 42; fruit = 16; vegetables = 26; soft drinks = 14; alcoholic beverages = 5; others = 10. Additional questions include supplement use and food preparation methods such as grilling.
The final instrument is concise, complete and the most up-to-date for assessing the food and nutrient intake of African-origin Barbadians and the associations with breast and prostate cancer.