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Battery technology has come a long way since September 1899, when Ferdinand Porsche’s electric powered car won its first road race. The “Egger-Lohner electric C.2 Phaeton” carried a Tudor brand lead-acid battery that weighed 500 kg and propelled the 1350-kg vehicle with 3 hp (2.2 kW for 3–5 h) for 80 km.
We develop a model of the steady exchange flows which may develop between two aquifers at different levels in the geological strata and across which there is an unstable density stratification, as a result of their connection through a series of fractures. We show that in general there are multiple steady exchange flows which can develop, depending on the initial conditions, and which may involve a net upwards or downwards volume flux. We also show that there is a family of equilibrium exchange flows with zero net volume flux, each characterised by a different interlayer flux of buoyancy. We present experiments which confirm our simplified model of the exchange flow. Such exchange flows may supply unsaturated water from a deep aquifer to drive dissolution of a structurally trapped pool of geologically stored
, once the water in the aquifer containing the trapped pool of
has become saturated in
, and hence relatively dense. Such exchange flows may also lead to cross-contamination of aquifer fluids, which may be of relevance in assessing risks of geological storage systems.
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