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Electrospun coaxial fibers are used to create core/sheath fiber structures to act as growth-promoting scaffolds for in vitro dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cell cultures. The core was a conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and the sheath was poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), which created coaxial fibers with a conductive core and an insulating sheath. SEM analysis confirmed the conductivity of the core and insulation of the sheath. Several coaxial spinneret designs were tested with the best results obtained by using various annular spinning needle combinations. Using a 22G/16G and 22G/17G combination, fibers with diameters of 6.1 ± 2.4 µm and 3.3 ± 0.9 µm were spun, respectively. The fibers showed a Young’s modulus and hardness of 0.16 ± 0.13 and 0.02 ± 0.01 GPa for the larger diameters, and 0.7 ± 0.4 and 0.03 ± 0.03 GPa for the smaller diameter fibers. In vitro test cultures showed the fibers successfully directed chick DRG axonal outgrowth with low biotoxicity.
The ‘Portus Project’ investigates the social and economic contexts of the maritime port of Imperial Rome. This article presents the results of analysis of plant, animal and human remains from the site, and evaluates their significance for the reconstruction of the diets and geographic origins of its inhabitants between the second and sixth centuries AD. Integrating this evidence with other material from the recent excavations, including ceramic data, the authors identify clear diachronic shifts in imported foods and diet that relate to the commercial and political changes following the breakdown of Roman control of the Mediterranean.
There is no suitable vaccine against human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and available drugs are toxic and/or present high cost. In this context, diagnostic tools should be improved for clinical management and epidemiological evaluation of disease. However, the variable sensitivity and/or specificity of the used antigens are limitations, showing the necessity to identify new molecules to be tested in a more sensitive and specific serology. In the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed in Leishmania infantum promastigotes and amastigotes employing sera samples from VL patients. Aiming to avoid undesired cross-reactivity in the serological assays, sera from Chagas disease patients and healthy subjects living in the endemic region of disease were also used in immunoblottings. The most reactive spots for VL samples were selected, and 29 and 21 proteins were identified in the promastigote and amastigote extracts, respectively. Two of them, endonuclease III and GTP-binding protein, were cloned, expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments against a large serological panel, and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values for the diagnosis of disease. In conclusion, the identified proteins could be considered in future studies as candidate antigens for the serodiagnosis of human VL.
This chapter describes the ways in which online affinity networks motivate learning and support interest development. It builds on the model of “connected learning” that posits that learning is most resilient and meaningful when it is tied to social relationships and cultural identities, and spans in-school and out-of-school settings. The analysis draws from ethnographic case studies of youth-centered networks focused on fanfiction, knitting, professional wrestling, anime video remixers, Bollywood dance, YouTube vloggers, and communities surrounding two games, Little Big Planet 2 and StarCraft II. Factors that draw young people to online spaces to pursue their interests are diverse. For some, it is to find a safe space for a stigmatized interest. For others, it is because of an attraction to a narrow niche, leveling up, or technical specialization that is only accessible online. In all cases, however, high functioning online affinity networks are characterized by a strong set of shared values and culture that are the magnet for affiliation. In addition, a set of shared practices provide a focus of activity and engagement.
The platform #TAg was developed throughout 2016/2017 and officially launched on 1 October 2017. Within the first 30 days, the platform has been readily accepted by affiliates, regions and global functions through significant use uptake as measured by user registration and download activities. In addition, #TAg was used successfully in a pilot project for a submission to an external HTA body.
A complete knowledge management system for HTA evidence is important for driving efficiency in scoping, storing and disseminating access evidence information within a pharmaceutical company. #TAg has so far proved a good start on such a system with further development expected in the coming years.
The persistently changing landscape of cyberspace and cybersecurity has led to a call for organizations’ increased attention toward securing information and systems. Rapid change in the cyber environment puts it on a scale unlike any other performance environment typically of interest to industrial and organizational (I-O) psychologists and related disciplines. In this article, we reflect on the idea of keeping pace with cyber, with a particular focus on the role of practicing I-O psychologists in assisting individuals, teams, and organizations. We focus on the unique roles of I-O psychologists in relation to the cyber realm and discuss the ways in which they can contribute to organizational cybersecurity efforts. As highlighted throughout this article, we assert that the mounting threats within cyberspace amount to a “looming crisis.” Thus, we view assisting organizations and their employees with becoming resilient and adaptive to cyber threats as an imperative, and practicing I-O psychologists should be at the forefront of these efforts.
According to the developmental psychopathology framework, adverse childhood experiences, including child sexual abuse (CSA), may alter the course of normal development in children. Attachment security has been identified as a protective factor against psychopathology and may thus play a critical role in predicting victims’ adaptation. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the mediating effect of attachment representations in the relation between CSA and behavior problems over a 1-year period. The sample consisted of 391 children (251 sexually abused) aged 3.5 to 6 years. The Attachment Story Completion Task and the Child Behavior Checklist were used. Disorganized attachment partially mediated the relation between CSA and children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems 1 year following the initial assessment. This mediation effect was not found for ambivalent nor secure attachment dimensions. Child gender was found to moderate the association between CSA and disorganization, with larger effects of CSA among boys. These findings underscore the importance of considering attachment representations in treatment programs for preschool victims. Evidence-based practice focusing on trauma could be combined with an attachment-based intervention targeting the parent–child relationship. Moreover, interventions should be gender sensitive, as CSA appears to affect boys and girls differently.
Many snow models have been developed for various applications such as hydrology, global atmospheric circulation models and avalanche forecasting. The degree of complexity of these models is highly variable, ranging from simple index methods to multi-layer models that simulate snow-cover stratigraphy and texture. In the framework of the Snow Model Intercomparison Project (SnowMIP), 23 models were compared using observed meteorological parameters from two mountainous alpine sites. The analysis here focuses on validation of snow energy-budget simulations. Albedo and snow surface temperature observations allow identification of the more realistic simulations and quantification of errors for two components of the energy budget: the net short- and longwave radiation. In particular, the different albedo parameterizations are evaluated for different snowpack states (in winter and spring). Analysis of results during the melting period allows an investigation of the different ways of partitioning the energy fluxes and reveals the complex feedbacks which occur when simulating the snow energy budget. Particular attention is paid to the impact of model complexity on the energy-budget components. The model complexity has a major role for the net longwave radiation calculation, whereas the albedo parameterization is the most significant factor explaining the accuracy of the net shortwave radiation simulation.
Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency is associated with CVD, impaired kidney function and proteinuria. To date, no study has evaluated these associations in renal transplant recipients (RTR) adjusting for body adiposity assessed by a ‘gold standard’ method. This study aimed to evaluate the vitamin D status and its association with body adiposity, CVD risk factors, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria in RTR, living in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (a low-latitude city (22°54'10"S)), taking into account body adiposity evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This cross-sectional study included 195 RTR (114 men) aged 47·6 (sd 11·2) years. Nutritional evaluation included anthropometry and DXA. Risk factors for CVD were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia and the metabolic syndrome. eGFR was evaluated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was used to define vitamin D status as follows: 10 % (n 19) had vitamin D deficiency (<16 ng/ml), 43 % (n 85) had insufficiency (16–30 ng/ml) and 47 % (n 91) had sufficiency (>30 ng/ml). Percentage of body fat (DXA) was significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency independently of age, sex and eGFR. Lower 25(OH)D was associated with higher odds of the metabolic syndrome and dyslipidaemia after adjustment for age, sex and eGFR, but not after additional adjustment for body fat. Hypertension and diabetes were not related to 25(OH)D. Lower serum 25(OH)D was associated with increasing proteinuria and decreasing eGFR even after adjustments for age, sex and percentage of body fat. This study suggests that in RTR of a low-latitude city hypovitaminosis D is common, and is associated with excessive body fat, decreased eGFR and increased proteinuria.
Suspensions of microswimmers are a rich source of fascinating new fluid mechanics. Recently we predicted the active pipe flow dispersion of gyrotactic microalgae, whose orientation is biased by gravity and flow shear. Analytical theory predicts that these active swimmers disperse in a markedly distinct manner from passive tracers (Taylor dispersion). Dispersing swimmers display non-zero drift and effective diffusivity that is non-monotonic with Péclet number. Such predictions agree with numerical simulations, but hitherto have not been tested experimentally. Here, to facilitate comparison, we obtain new solutions of the axial dispersion theory accounting both for swimmer negative buoyancy and a local nonlinear response of swimmers to shear, provided by two alternative microscopic stochastic descriptions. We obtain new predictions for suspensions of the model swimming alga Dunaliella salina, whose motility and buoyant mass we parametrise using tracking video microscopy. We then present a new experimental method to measure gyrotactic dispersion using fluorescently stained D. salina and provide a preliminary comparison with predictions of a non-zero drift above the mean flow for each microscopic stochastic description. Finally, we propose further experiments for a full experimental characterisation of gyrotactic dispersion measures and discuss the implications of our results for algal dispersion in industrial photobioreactors.
The collective response of electrons in an ultrathin foil target irradiated by an ultraintense (
) laser pulse is investigated experimentally and via 3D particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that if the target is sufficiently thin that the laser induces significant radiation pressure, but not thin enough to become relativistically transparent to the laser light, the resulting relativistic electron beam is elliptical, with the major axis of the ellipse directed along the laser polarization axis. When the target thickness is decreased such that it becomes relativistically transparent early in the interaction with the laser pulse, diffraction of the transmitted laser light occurs through a so called ‘relativistic plasma aperture’, inducing structure in the spatial-intensity profile of the beam of energetic electrons. It is shown that the electron beam profile can be modified by variation of the target thickness and degree of ellipticity in the laser polarization.
The HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) offers a unique perspective on the galaxy population in the local universe. A catalogue of 4315 HI-selected galaxies has been extracted from the southern region of the survey (δ < +2°). This catalogue gives a clear view of the local large-scale structure and is used to study the two-point correlation function, the Tully-Fisher relation, and galaxy luminosity and mass functions. Some initial results are discussed here.
Skeletal remains from a burial in New South Wales exhibit evidence of fatal
trauma, of a kind normally indicative of sharp metal weapons, yet the burial
dates to the mid thirteenth century—600 years before European settlers
reached the area. Could sharp-edged wooden weapons from traditional
Aboriginal culture inflict injuries similar to those resulting from later,
metal blades? Analysis indicates that the wooden weapons known as
‘Lil-lils’ and the fighting boomerangs
(‘Wonna’) both have blades that could fit within the
dimensions of the major trauma and are capable of having caused the fatal
The Tully-Fisher relation is of interest because of its use as a secondary distance measure and the constraints it places on the physics of rotationally supported galaxies. We use data from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey Catalogue to study and apply the Tully-Fisher relation on a sample of galaxies selected on their HI properties. the issues of third parameter dependencies and intrinsic scatter of the Tully-Fisher relation are investigated.
Polymer nanofiber scaffolds for use in neural tissue engineering have been fabricated via electrospinning of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) directly onto a 3D printed support. Previously, the investigators have shown success in promoting the directed growth of neural axons on highly aligned PLLA substrates both in vitro and in vivo. However, one criticism of the earlier in vitro studies is that by spinning fibers on a flat, two-dimensional surface, the growth of the axons is restricted to one plane. Thus the axon-to-fiber attachment may not be the sole mechanism for aligning the growth of the axons along the fibers, and the channels between the fibers and the substrate could contribute to the results. Using 3D-printing, elevated or “bridge” spinning stages were made with supports at varying heights, allowing the fibers to be suspended 2 to 5 mm above the substrate surface in different configurations. This 3D structure promotes better access of in vitro cell cultures on the fibers to the growth media during incubation, reduces substrate effects, allows more degrees of freedom for axonal growth, and more closely simulates the growth environment found in vivo. Using these 3D stages, we have electrospun free-standing, highly-aligned pure PLLA fiber scaffolds. We are exploring spinning coaxial fibers with a PLLA sheath and a second core polymer. These coaxial fiber scaffold structures offer additional opportunities for in situ delivery of growth agents and/or electrical stimulation for improved axonal growth results.
The present article tracks the development of the Australian National Food Plan as a ‘whole of government’ food policy that aimed to integrate elements of nutrition and sustainability alongside economic objectives.
The article uses policy analysis to explore the processes of consultation and stakeholder involvement in the development of the National Food Plan, focusing on actors from the sectors of industry, civil society and government. Existing documentation and submissions to the Plan were used as data sources. Models of health policy analysis and policy streams were employed to analyse policy development processes.
Australian food policy stakeholders.
The development of the Plan was influenced by powerful industry groups and stakeholder engagement by the lead ministry favoured the involvement of actors representing the food and agriculture industries. Public health nutrition and civil society relied on traditional methods of policy influence, and the public health nutrition movement failed to develop a unified cross-sector alliance, while the private sector engaged in different ways and presented a united front. The National Food Plan failed to deliver an integrated food policy for Australia. Nutrition and sustainability were effectively sidelined due to the focus on global food production and positioning Australia as a food ‘superpower’ that could take advantage of the anticipated ‘dining boom’ as incomes rose in the Asia-Pacific region.
New forms of industry influence are emerging in the food policy arena and public health nutrition will need to adopt new approaches to influencing public policy.