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In this study, we argue that foreign subsidiaries may benefit from the corporate strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in different ways in terms of knowledge transfer and strategic flexibility. From this viewpoint, we explore the relationship between product diversification and financial performance of their subsidiaries under the condition of MNE geographic diversification. Using panel data on foreign subsidiaries in European countries from 2006 to 2011, we find a U-shaped relationship between product diversification and subsidiary performance and the joint effect of product and geographic diversification. Given the importance of transition economies in international business today, we conducted a subsample test contrasting the results based on the transitional (Central and Eastern European) versus Western European countries. The contrasting results provide important implications for other transition economies like China. We validate the relationship in several ways in our robustness tests.
Signal-in-space (SIS) continuity and availability are important indicators of performance assessment for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) Open Service Performance Standard (BDS-OS-PS-1.0) has been released, and the corresponding public performance indicators have been provided, but the actual SIS performance is uncertain to users. SIS continuity and availability are primarily related to unscheduled outages (failures). Therefore, based on the existing failure classification system and actual operation modes, four types of failure modes are first analysed: long-term failure related to satellite service period, maintenance failure related to satellite manoeuvring, short-term failure associated with random repairable anomalies and equivalent failure corresponding to a combination of the above three types of failures. Second, based on the failure classification and selected precise and broadcast ephemerides from 2015–2016, the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) of each failure type are obtained using appropriate detection methods. Finally, using a corresponding assessment model, the SIS continuity and availability of BeiDou are calculated for individual and equivalent failure cases, and these are compared with the provided index in the BDS Open Service Performance Standard.
Nonuniform dispersion and weak interfacial bonding between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and Cu matrix are two critical issues for achieving high strength and good ductility of CNT/Cu composites. Here, acid-treated CNTs precoated with Ni coatings were used to enhance the dispersion uniformity of CNTs and interfacial bonding between CNTs and Cu matrix in the CNT/Cu composites fabricated through spark plasma sintering and subsequently cold rolling. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the homogeneous dispersion of Ni-coated CNTs (Ni-CNTs) in the composite compared with uncoated CNTs. Transmission electron microscope observation indicated that Cu2O nanoparticles were in situ formed at the interface in Ni-CNT/Cu composite, where CNTs were uncovered by Ni coatings. After rolling, the distribution of Ni-CNTs transformed into ribbons aligning along the rolling direction. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 261 MPa was achieved in rolled 1 vol% Ni-CNT/Cu composite, which was 24.3% higher than that before rolling. The UTS of 2 vol% Ni-CNT/Cu composite obviously decreased, which could be attributed to the agglomeration of Ni-CNTs in the Cu matrix due to the increased volume content.
The onset of thermal convection in a rapidly rotating spherical shell is studied by linear stability analysis based on the fully compressible Navier–Stokes equations. Compressibility is quantified by the number of density scale heights
, which measures the intensity of density stratification of the motionless, polytropic base state. The nearly adiabatic flow with polytropic index
is considered, where
is the adiabatic polytropic index. By investigating the stability of the base state with respect to the disturbance of specified wavenumber, the instability process is found to be sensitive to the Prandtl number
. For large
, the quasi-geostrophic columnar mode loses stability first; while for relatively small
a new quasi-geostrophic compressible mode is identified, which becomes unstable first under strong density stratification. The inertial mode can also occur first for relatively small
and a certain intensity of density stratification in the parameter range considered. Although the Rayleigh numbers
for the onsets of the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode and columnar mode are different by several orders of magnitude, we find that they follow very similar scaling laws with the Taylor number. The critical
for convection onset is found to be always positive, in contrast with previous results based on the widely used anelastic model that convection can occur at negative
. By evaluating the relative magnitude of the time derivative of density perturbation in the continuity equation, we show that the anelastic approximation in the present system cannot be applied in the small-
The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a comprehensive overview of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 subtypes and to investigate temporal and geographical trends of the HIV-1 epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Chinese and English articles published between January 2007 and December 2017 were systematically searched. Pooled HIV-1 prevalence was calculated, and its stability was analysed using sensitivity analysis. Subgroups were based on study time period, sampling area and prevalence. Publication bias was measured using Funnel plot and Egger's test. A total of 68 independent studies that included HIV-1 molecular investigations were eligible for meta-analysis. Circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE (57.36%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 53.76–60.92) was confirmed as the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype among MSM in China. Subgroup analysis for time period found that CRF01_AE steadily increased prior to 2012 but decreased during 2012–2016. Further whereas CRF07_BC increased over time, B/B′ decreased over time. CRF55_01B has increased in recent years, with higher pooled estimated rate in Guangdong (12.22%, 95% CI 10.34–13.17) and Fujian (8.65%, 95% CI 4.98–13.17) provinces. The distribution of HIV-1 subtypes among MSM in China has changed across different regions and periods. HIV-1 strains in MSM are becoming more complex. Long-term molecular monitoring in this population remains necessary for HIV-1 epidemic control and prevention.
Compared with traditional stainless steels, high nitrogen stainless steels (HNSS), have been widely used due to their high strength, toughness along with excellent corrosion resistance and low cost, formed by partial replacement of Ni (austenite-forming element) by N. The evolution of the microstructure of a Cr19Mn19Mo2N0.7 stainless steel is investigated after solution treatment at 1010, 1060, 1200 or 1250°C for 30min. A complex multilayer structure has been found under a negative pressure vacuum. A white ferritic layer at the surface is formed, and a subsurface layer with full austenitic structure and a bulk microstructure comprising of austenite and ferrite are detected. With increasing solution temperature, the surface layer thickness increases. The formation of the multilayer structure is attributed to an outward diffusion, a diffusive retardation and an abnormal accumulation of nitrogen during solution treatment.
An analytical research is developed using the averaging technique of composites for the macroscopic behaviors of porous shape memory alloy (SMA) beam with different porosity under pure bending. The whole material is regarded as a composite beam of porous SMA and dense SMA, in which the component fractions of the porous SMA show gradient changes over geometric dimension. To get the theoretical solution of such material under pure bending, the Mises yield theory and the ideal elastoplastic model are used to describe the phase transition of the material. The macroscopic behaviors of the porous SMAs beam with different porosity are then simulated using the averaging technique of composites. Examples for a porous SMA beam with gradient porosity from 0 to 50% considering the tension compression asymmetry of the SMAs are then supplied; the results show that after transformation the stress distribution in the whole material is lower than in the case of the pure elastic gradient porous materials, and for different part of the SMA with different porosity shows different strength characters.
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
The Carrier-Phase (CP) technique used in the Global Positioning System (GPS) has proved to be a useful spatial tool for remote precise time transfer. Galileo is a Global Navigation Satellite System like GPS. However, currently, given the low number of satellites at any one observation epoch, Galileo's accuracy and continuity of time transfer leave much to be desired. To achieve better performance of time transfer for Galileo, this study has developed a new approach for Galileo CP time transfer, using prior constraint information such as precise coordinates and troposphere zenith delay constraints. The new approach was applied for precise time transfer in real-time mode and post-processed mode for short baseline and long baseline observations. For the short baseline time link in real-time mode, compared with the standard Galileo CP, the standard deviation improved by 51·4% for the troposphere zenith delay constraint, 47·6% for the station coordinates constraint, and 49·5% when considering both constraints simultaneously. At a 10,000 s time interval, in comparison to the standard CP, the three constraint approaches show stable results as well as improvements of nearly an order of magnitude. In post-processed mode, the constraint approach for Galileo time transfer showed little improvement compared to the standard CP technique for both the short baseline and long baseline time links.
We previously reported four heterozygous missense mutations of MYH7, KCNQ1, MYLK2, and TMEM70 in a single three-generation Chinese family with dual Long QT and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotypes for the first time. However, the clinical course among the family members was various, and the potential myocardial dysfunction has not been investigated.
The objective of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic and electrocardiographic characteristics in a genetic positive Chinese family with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and further to explore the association between myocardial dysfunction and electric activity, and the identified mutations.
A comprehensive echocardiogram – standard two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography – and electrocardiogram were obtained for members in this family.
As previously reported, four missense mutations – MYH7-H1717Q, KCNQ1-R190W, MYLK2-K324E, and TMEM70-I147T – were identified in this family. The MYH7-H1717Q mutation carriers had significantly increased left ventricular mass indices, elevated E/e’ ratio, deteriorated global longitudinal stain, but enhanced global circumferential and radial strain compared with those in non-mutation patients (all p<0.05). The KCNQ1-R190W carriers showed significantly prolonged QTc intervals, and the MYLK2-K324E mutation carriers showed inverted T-waves (both p<0.05). However, the TMEM70-I147T mutation carriers had similar echocardiography and electrocardiographic data as non-mutation patients.
Three of the identified four mutations had potential pathogenic effects in this family: MYH7-H1717Q was associated with increased left ventricular thickness, elevated left ventricular filling pressure, and altered myocardial deformation; KCNQ1-R190W and MYLK2-K324E mutations were correlated with electrocardiographic abnormalities reflected in long QT phenotype and inverted T-waves, respectively.
The influences of non-Oberbeck–Boussinesq (NOB) effects on flow instabilities and bifurcation characteristics of Rayleigh–Bénard convection are examined. The working fluid is air with reference Prandtl number
and contained in two-dimensional rigid cavities of finite aspect ratios. The fluid flow is governed by the low-Mach-number equations, accounting for the NOB effects due to large temperature difference involving flow compressibility and variations of fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity with temperature. The intensity of NOB effects is measured by the dimensionless temperature differential
. Linear stability analysis of the thermal conduction state is performed. An
scaling of the leading-order corrections of critical Rayleigh number
and disturbance growth rate
due to NOB effects is identified, which is a consequence of an intrinsic symmetry of the system. The influences of weak NOB effects on flow instabilities are further studied by perturbation expansion of linear stability equations with regard to
, and then the influence of aspect ratio
is investigated in detail. NOB effects are found to enhance (weaken) flow stability in large (narrow) cavities. Detailed contributions of compressibility, viscosity and buoyancy actions on disturbance kinetic energy growth are identified quantitatively by energy analysis. Besides, a weakly nonlinear theory is developed based on centre-manifold reduction to investigate the NOB influences on bifurcation characteristics near convection onset, and amplitude equations are constructed for both codimension-one and -two cases. Rich bifurcation regimes are observed based on amplitude equations and also confirmed by direct numerical simulation. Weakly nonlinear analysis is useful for organizing and understanding these simulation results.
The Beidou System (BDS) started functioning at the end of 2012. The Yaw-Steering (YS) attitude mode for Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites in BDS ensures that the solar panels face the Sun. The orbit radial accuracies for IGSO/MEO satellites are 0·5 m and the User Equivalent Range Errors (UERE) are 1·5 m in YS mode. BDS-2 satellites adopt Orbit-Normal (ON) mode to meet the power supply and thermal control requirements of the satellite during deep Earth eclipse periods. In ON mode, long-term orbit ephemeris accuracy monitoring in the Operational Control System (OCS) of BDS indicates that the orbit accuracies for IGSO/MEOs are reduced to a few hundreds of metres, seriously affecting the positioning accuracy and navigation service capability of the BDS system. Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) is difficult to model in ON mode. Continuous Yaw-Steering (CYS) mode is available for new generation Beidou satellites launched since 2015. The orbit accuracies for these new generation Beidou (BDS-3) satellites were estimated based on BDS monitoring station data and SRP models including ECOM 9/5/3. The evaluation method consisted of four steps, namely, orbit internal consistency analysis, UERE calculation, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data fitting Root Mean Square (RMS) determinations and positioning performance analysis; the data gathering period lasted for more than 60 days and included two CYS periods and one ON period. The experiments showed that the orbit accuracy of the radial component in CYS mode for the BDS-3 satellites degrades by 2 to 3 cm and positioning accuracy degrades only by 1 cm over that in YS mode which is just a small reduction in accuracy compared with the decimetre-level BDS orbit accuracy and the metre-level single point positioning accuracy with BDS pseudorange data. This overcomes declining orbit and positioning accuracy issues in ON mode for BDS-2 satellites. Other results also show that the reliability of BDS has been improved.
This paper proposes a model for combined Global Positioning System (GPS) and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning. The approach uses only one common reference ambiguity, for example, that of GPS L1, and estimates the pseudo-range and carrier phase system and frequency biases. The validations show that these biases are stable during a continuous reference ambiguity period and can be easily estimated, and the other estimated double-differenced ambiguities, such as those of GPS L2, BDS L1, and BDS L2, are not affected. Therefore, our approach solves the problems of a frequently changing reference satellite. In addition, because all the carrier phase observations use the same reference ambiguity, a relationship is established between the different systems and frequencies, and the strength of the combined model is thus increased.
Electrocatalytic water splitting for the production of H2 is increasingly becoming a significant method to mitigate the current energy crisis and environmental pollution. However, oxygen evolution reaction (OER), a slow four-electron progress, is the bottle neck of water splitting. Thus, developing new, low cost, and effective catalysts for OER is a research hotspot in material and energy resource fields. Therefore, the research of nonprecious, metal-based OER catalysts has been popular. In this work, it is validated that 3D hollow Co(OH)2 nanoflowers synthesized by a facile template-based strategy at room temperature are effective electrocatalysts for OER. The catalysts display high activity with a current density of 10 mA/cm2 at an overpotential of 310 mV and a small Tafel slope of 68.9 mV/dec in alkaline condition. It’s noteworthy that this material is stable for over 20 h of chronopotentiometry. This work offers a simple and promising way to prepare efficient and durable electrocatalysts.
Freedom from fear and freedom from want are two of the fundamental freedoms and likely related to changes in the environment. It has usually been assumed that our subjective feelings should change accordingly with changes in the objective environment. However, two counterintuitive effects reviewed in this article imply a rather complex psychological mechanism behind how people respond to environmental changes and strive for the freedom from fear and want. The first is the ‘psychological typhoon eye’ effect, in which the closer people are to hazards, the calmer they feel. Several possible explanations have been proposed, but the mechanism behind this effect remains unclear. The findings are important for future post-disaster interventions and helpful for policy makers in risk management and researchers in risk studies. The second effect is the ‘town dislocation’ effect, wherein although inhabitants’ objective quality of life is improved during the urbanisation process, the projected endorsement and rated social ambience of town residents is lower than that of residents in the country and in the city; this effect is mediated by social support. The findings have implications for how to better assess the urbanisation process and how to improve people's affective appraisals of their living environment.
Although the brittle material in analogue models is characterized by a linear Navier-Coulomb behaviour and rate-independent deformation, the geometry and style of deformation in accretionary wedges is sensitive to shortening velocity. In this study we have constructed a series of analogue models with various shortening velocities in order to study the influence of shortening velocity on the geometry and kinematics of accretionary wedges. Model results illustrate how shortening velocity has an important influence on the geometry and kinematics of the resulting wedge. In general, for models having similar bulk shortening, the accretionary wedges with higher velocities of shortening are roughly steeper, higher and longer, as well as having larger critical wedge angles and height. It accommodates a number of foreland-vergent thrusts, larger fault spacing and displacement rates than those of low- to medium-velocity shortening, which indicates a weak velocity-dependence in geometry of the wedge. Moreover, models with a high velocity of shortening undergo larger amounts of volumetric strain and total layer-parallel shortening than models with low- to medium-velocity shortening. The former accommodate a greater development of back thrusts and asymmetric structures; a backwards-to-forwards style of wedge growth therefore occurs in the frontal zone under high-velocity shortening.
The link between lithosphere thinning and formation of world-class gold deposits is well established in the Jiaodong Peninsula within the eastern North China Craton (NCC). However, the timing of initiation and duration of the lithospheric thinning process as well as the depth of formation of the mineralization remain uncertain. Since these parameters are fundamental to formulate exploration strategies, in this study we perform fission track (FT) analysis on zircon and apatite grains in Late Mesozoic granitoid samples from the Jiaodong Peninsula and provide new constraints for the mode and duration of lithospheric evolution and mineralization depth. The zircon FT ages range from 64.3 to 90.9 Ma and those of apatite show a range of 32.8–50.9 Ma. The data collectively display age peaks at ~60–80 and ~30–50 Ma. Reverse modelling of the apatite FT results indicates rapid crustal uplift during ~30–80 Ma in the Jiaodong Peninsula. This period coincides with the timing of maximal sedimentation in the neighboring basins and voluminous basaltic eruptions in the eastern NCC. We suggest that the Jiaodong Peninsula has experienced two stages of crust uplift in the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene as a consequence of the continuing lithosphere thinning, together with the surrounding basins, forming the horst–graben system in the eastern NCC. The Late Mesozoic granitoids are the main wall rocks for gold deposits in Jiaodong, and thus the crust denudation history gathered from the FT data suggest that the gold mineralization formed at depths of c. 6–11 km.