The scientific study of human intelligence is a relatively recent development in Spain. Its study began early in the twentieth century with a strong influence from psychometrics (Yela, 1956). Nevertheless, current Spanish research on human intelligence covers the main topics within the field, from the structure of human intelligence to its biological correlates.
This chapter begins with a brief review of the history of human intelligence and of the most important databases in psychology, to identify content domains. Second, current research programs are discussed within the context of the international literature. Finally, assessment instruments for the measurement of intelligence are summarized, and data related to their use for practical purposes are presented.
THE HISTORY OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE IN SPAIN
Human intelligence has a long history as a philosophical issue, but a short one as the subject of scientific inquiry. Therefore, before describing contemporary research in Spain, we should consider some representative thoughts of a sixteenth-century physician-philosopher, Juan Huarte de San Juan, as well as some more modern pioneers in the area.
As is widely recognized, Juan Huarte de San Juan (1526–1588?) was a pioneer of experimental and differential psychology, as well as of the study of personality and intelligence. Huarte published the Exam of the Talents for Sciences in 1575. This book presents a quite modern concept of intelligence as a set of mental abilities. The book deals not only with types of intelligence, but also with their application to counseling and personnel selection.