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Archaeologists have long subjected Clovis megafauna kill/scavenge sites to the highest level of scrutiny. In 1987, a Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) was found in spatial association with a small artifact assemblage in Converse County, Wyoming. However, due to the small tool assemblage, limited nature of the excavations, and questions about the security of the association between the artifacts and mammoth remains, the site was never included in summaries of human-killed/scavenged megafauna in North America. Here we present the results of four field seasons of new excavations at the La Prele Mammoth site that confirm the presence of an associated cultural occupation based on geologic context, artifact attributes, spatial distributions, protein residue analysis, and lithic microwear analysis. This new work identified a more extensive cultural occupation including the presence of multiple discrete artifact clusters in close proximity to the mammoth bone bed. This study confirms the presence of a second Clovis mammoth kill/scavenge site in Wyoming and shows the value in revisiting proposed terminal Pleistocene kill/scavenge sites.
Perfectionism is a transdiagnostic risk factor across psychopathology. The Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ) was developed to assess change in order to provide clinical utility, but currently the psychometric properties of the CPQ with adolescents is unknown.
To assess the factor structure and construct validity of the CPQ in female adolescents.
The CPQ was administered to 267 females aged 14–19 years of age. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the validity of the two-factor model and a second-order factor model. Pearson correlations were used to evaluate the relationships between the CPQ and a wide range of measures of perfectionism, psychopathology and personality traits.
The study demonstrated internal consistency, construct validity and incremental validity of the CPQ in a sample of female adolescents. The CFA in the present study confirmed the two-factor model of the CPQ with Factor 1 relating to perfectionistic strivings and Factor 2 representing perfectionistic concerns. The second-order two factor model indicated no deterioration in fit.
The two-factor model of the CPQ fits with the theoretical definition of clinical perfectionism where the over-dependence of self-worth on achievement and concern over mistakes are key elements. The CPQ is suitable for use with female adolescents in future research that seeks to better understand the role of perfectionism in the range of mental illnesses that impact youth.
Both India and Nepal are prone to a wide range of natural and man-made disasters. Almost 85% of India’s area is vulnerable to one or more hazards, and more than 80% of the total population of Nepal is at risk of natural hazards. In terms of the number of people affected in reported disastrous events, India is in the top 10 and Nepal is in the top 20 globally. Over the last two decades, India and Nepal have taken steps to establish their respective National Disaster Management organizations, which provide essential disaster responses. However, key gaps still remain in trained clinical capacity for managing impacts from various disasters. Our review of the region has shown that large parts of the population suffer injuries, diseases, disabilities, psychosocial, and other health-related problems from disasters.
Develop disaster medicine clinical capacity to reduce morbidities and mortalities from disasters.
Independent published data and work undertaken by the lead author in various disasters in India and Nepal since 1993 formed the basis of establishing the Faculty of Disaster Medicine for South Asia. The Faculty of Disaster Medicine - India and Nepal (FDMIN) was launched from Pune in March 2015. This initiative is supported by the National Association of Primary Care (UK), Public Health England, Faculty of Pre-hospital Care of Royal College of Surgeons - Edinburgh and CRIMEDIM (Novara) - Italy.
FDMIN has international expert advisors and has outlined 16 modules training curriculum for health care professionals. FDMIN currently has partnerships for teaching disaster medicine program with 3 medical universities and 12 major health care providers. Six pilot training programmes have been conducted in Pune, Delhi, Chennai, and Kochin. Work is underway to submit an application to the Indian regulatory bodies for approval to establish a post-graduate diploma and Master’s for Disaster Medicine.
Labour internationalism is often viewed as impossible or inevitable, depending upon political perspective. O'Brien argues for a more nuanced, diverse understanding of labour internationalism, identifying six different 'faces', shaped by the national or global orientation of particular groups in the fields of production, regulation and ideas. Providing a general view of labour's global activity and a case study of the Southern Initiative on Globalisation and Trade Union Rights (SIGTUR), the book illustrates how the productive and regulatory structures of the global economy are pushing labour internationalism in particular directions. It details how leftist unions in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, India, the Philippines, South Africa, and South Korea have tried to bridge their differences and launch collective actions. Drawing upon twenty years of participant observation, O'Brien reveals a specific Global South approach based upon anti-imperialism, anti-capitalism and empathetic internationalism.
Dopaminergic imaging has high diagnostic accuracy for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) at the dementia stage. We report the first investigation of dopaminergic imaging at the prodromal stage.
We recruited 75 patients over 60 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 33 with probable MCI with Lewy body disease (MCI-LB), 15 with possible MCI-LB and 27 with MCI with Alzheimer's disease. All underwent detailed clinical, neurological and neuropsychological assessments and FP-CIT [123I-N-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)] dopaminergic imaging. FP-CIT scans were blindly rated by a consensus panel and classified as normal or abnormal.
The sensitivity of visually rated FP-CIT imaging to detect combined possible or probable MCI-LB was 54.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39.2–68.6], with a specificity of 89.0% (95% CI 70.8–97.6) and a likelihood ratio for MCI-LB of 4.9, indicating that FP-CIT may be a clinically important test in MCI where any characteristic symptoms of Lewy body (LB) disease are present. The sensitivity in probable MCI-LB was 61.0% (95% CI 42.5–77.4) and in possible MCI-LB was 40.0% (95% CI 16.4–67.7).
Dopaminergic imaging had high specificity at the pre-dementia stage and gave a clinically important increase in diagnostic confidence and so should be considered in all patients with MCI who have any of the diagnostic symptoms of DLB. As expected, the sensitivity was lower in MCI-LB than in established DLB, although over 50% still had an abnormal scan. Accurate diagnosis of LB disease is important to enable early optimal treatment for LB symptoms.
Volumetric atrophy and microstructural alterations in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of the hippocampus have been reported in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, no study to date has jointly investigated concomitant microstructural and volumetric changes of the hippocampus in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
A total of 84 subjects (23 MCI, 17 DLB, 14 AD, and 30 healthy controls) were recruited for a multi-modal imaging (3T MRI and DTI) study that included neuropsychological evaluation. Freesurfer was used to segment the total hippocampus and delineate its subfields. The hippocampal segmentations were co-registered to the mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps obtained from the DTI images.
Both AD and MCI groups showed significantly smaller hippocampal volumes compared to DLB and controls, predominantly in the CA1 and subiculum subfields. Compared to controls, hippocampal MD was elevated in AD, but not in MCI. DLB was characterized by both volumetric and microstructural preservation of the hippocampus. In MCI, higher hippocampal MD was associated with greater atrophy of the hippocampus and CA1 region. Hippocampal volume was a stronger predictor of memory scores compared to MD within the MCI group.
Through a multi-modal integration, we report novel evidence that the hippocampus in DLB is characterized by both macrostructural and microstructural preservation. Contrary to recent suggestions, our findings do not support the view that DTI measurements of the hippocampus are superior to volumetric changes in characterizing group differences, particularly between MCI and controls.